Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits
The reliability of technical systems, and in particular the reliability of a complex hierarchy of local technical segments, part of which is the software and have a close connection to the system elements of the upper levels of the hierarchy now has a set of concepts and values, which are integrated for a real understanding of the situation is extremely difficult and, in most cases virtually impossible to
There are recent developments that offer a highlight of all the fragments of an integrated local reliability of the system which the elements that determine the reliability of the most dangerous elements of the system, to some extent at the expense of reliability of complex integrated
Thus, engineers have proposed to create fault planes considered inevitable, and have developed a new approach to the design of aircraft. The work of scientists accepted for publication in the journal Journal of Aircraft, and its outline can be found online at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The difference between the new approach lies in the fact that the design engineers did not seek to optimize the aircraft in according to function, and looked primarily at the damage that may occur in it.
To do this, scientists have analyzed the statistics of individual faults and determined the probability of their occurrence.
For each fault - from light bulbs to burn out engines - modeled their effect on the aircraft as a whole, its handling and aerodynamics.
As a result of this analysis, the engineers got Wood mutually affecting faults on the basis of which they could understand exactly what the details should change.
As an example, engineers have analyzed the failure of a small 12-seat military aircraft, on which there was a detailed breakdown statistics.
It turned out that in the case of some failures plane geometry changes could significantly increase its security. For example, in case of failure of the rudder or failure of one engine, a model with a large tail led to a more stable.
The change would make the geometry of the plane is not so perfect in terms of aerodynamics, but it would make it much safer.
The proposed approach could, for example, be useful to create drones that do not have the opportunity to land for repairs and to continue the flight, come what may.
Since vehicles are forced to work, conducting the study of the Antarctic, where there are no airfields, no staff.
In the process of analyzing the situation, let us return to the tools of TRIZ and ARIZ, which are designed to overcome such difficulties and such complex contradictions
In the theory of inventive problem solving is a special program for solving difficult problems.
This program divides the process of resolving about 50 consecutive steps. The program features special moves that help to overcome psychological inertia. It has a rich program and information support. This program is called ARIZ algorithm for inventive problem solving.
The original "method of invention" was conceived as a set of rules such as "solve the problem - it means to find and overcome the technical contradiction" or "the solution is stronger, the smaller the cost of materials, energy, space and time."
In the emerging "method of invention," and included some common techniques: crushing, the union, inversion, change the state of aggregation, the replacement of the mechanical scheme of chemical and so on.
The main source for the identification of rules and techniques of information were the work of the great inventors, our own inventive practice, the materials on the history of technology.
By the mid-50s was formed and strengthened the belief that the inventors, even the most powerful, inefficient work by trial and error, and, therefore, futile desire to discover and use the "secrets of creativity."
We must build a brand new "method of invention" based on the use of objective laws of development of technical systems. Identify these laws can be a systematic analysis of large volumes of patent information.
By the end of the 50s of last century, it became clear that "the method of invention" should include not only ARIZ, but also a section on the laws of development of technical systems and constantly updated with information collection. "Methods of Invention" was to give way to a "science inventions".
This idea met with strong resistance. On the "method of invention," looked upon as something more or less tolerant: after all, it's useful recommendations based on a study of the experience of inventors, there is no overt subversion "saints" of concepts. "Science of Invention," raised his hand to the "holy" - denied the exclusivity of the great inventors, touched familiar notion of the unk-nowability of the creative process.
"The method of invention" helped "light up" - "science inventions" denied all the old technology, denied the innate abilities. It was at that time pure heresy ...
Over the years, this program becomes harder, more defined. B define the process of analyzing the operational area and conflicting demands for it (the prototype FP). Added operator RBS. The work on the table address TA, topped the list of devices (initially 40, then 50).
Increasing regulations to implement the steps, notes and examples. The basic operators form a system - strengthened the relationship between the steps, a new part - a preliminary assessment found the idea.
But it also will fit the situation has changed radically since appeared processor technology, which is a completely different take, and made the concept of reliability as well as a rigid, mechanistic understanding of reliability was replaced by more flexible - due to better process control and the duty cycle by using analytical control capabilities of the processor technology
We can distinguish the following basic directions in the evolution of TRIZ and ARIZ in terms of synthesis and modification of complex engineering solutions, one of the fundamental benchmarks of which is an integrative system reliability:
1. Traditional for the evolution of ARIZ - an overall increase in the degree of algorithmic due to more complete and better use of the objective laws of development of technical systems including the CPU.
2. The significant strengthening of a "bridge" between integrated technical problem and the way his permission, including based on the use of composite materials and the latest achievements of digital technology.
3. Strengthening information collection, strengthening ties between ARIZ and standards, including operational manufacturing standards combined with environmental standards, requirements and restrictions that run counter to traditional economic rules.
4. Addition of the second half of ARIZ (the development and use of the ideas found) as an independent algorithm, which has components of type - A program system and method ....
5. Development of a new part of the initial (or a single algorithm) to identify new composite and integrative tasks.
6. Strengthening of common educational function. ARIZ must vigorously develop the skills of a strong, complex thinking.
7. The gradual increase of universalism in the process of creating a composite model of the device or process which is closely related to the software and processor technology.