Andrew ( Gabriel ) Livshits
Changing the logic ARIZ many times it has been shown in a variety of schemes , where as a rule been identified :
AP - Administrative contradiction.
TA - technical contradiction .
TP y - Reinforced technical contradiction ( limit state ) .
RBIs - a perfect end result.
IKR1u - enhanced formulation IKR1 .
PT - physical contradiction.
FPmak - physical conflict at the macro level .
FPmik - physical conflict at the micro level .
P - decision.
Scientists have shown that insect legs remain underwater adhesion to smooth surfaces because of their contacts are protected place with air bubbles. The work is published in the journal
Proceedings of the Royal Society B, a summary of the results of its Nature News.
The ability of insects crawling on smooth surfaces because of their paws typically present hairs (setae), mating with the substrate due to capillary contacts.
Hairs are covered with water-repellent oil, which connects them to the surface just as the water table causes the stick to wet paper .
Researchers noticed that Leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula able to move on the glass even under water , although these conditions capillary contacts should collapse.
Nevertheless , this did not happen - in a laboratory aquarium beetles were able to stick to the glass almost as firmly as on land .
It turned out that the insects manage to maintain a strong bond with the glass because the water on their legs are always present air bubbles .
Since the point of contact they protect from penetration of water , the interaction between the hairs and the substrate is exactly the same as on land.
Finding this mechanism , scientists have created artificial Velcro that can stick to the glass under water without the use of glue.
They were made of modified silicone and covered with lots of " hairs " that kept on itself and at the same time the air made them sticky.
Use insect hairs for traction recalls a similar strategy geckos .
In these animals , however, a clutch mechanism - they use no capillary forces , and the force of attraction of van der Waals forces and do without oil.
Recently, a group of biophysicists discovered that such a mechanism does not work well in water - geckos , which were kept in trays in a few hours , are unable to climb the glass.
Interestingly, earlier , another group of scientists has shown that high humidity , on the contrary , promotes good adhesion to the surface of the hair .
Next , see the illustrations for automatic control and monitoring systems able not only to perform the functions of monitoring , but also to produce the necessary energy for this
U.S. nanotechnology using carbon nanotubes reproduced material which covered limbs of geckos , the website WorldChanging.com.
It is known that the lizards are able to run up the steep wall , and some time ago, biologists were able to explain this a special unit of the skin on the feet of the animal : it formed a special bristle, reversible " glued " to most surfaces .
The effect itself is easy to explain : the bristle surface " adjusted" under microscopic irregularities , so that the contact area is maximized.
Between particles " bristle " and " walls " are so-called van der Waals forces - are the same molecules that bind to the fluid.
Despite its simplicity, an artificial material with the desired properties for a long time is difficult.
In the body of the animal bristle filaments are composed of proteins whose structure is read from the responsible for the transfer of genetic information of DNA molecules , so that to reproduce the process literally scientists were not possible.
The problem was solved university staff in Akron ( Ohio, USA ) : they grew on the surface of the polymer "forest" multi-walled nanotubes - nested cylinders, formed a two-dimensional network of carbon atoms.
Before researchers drew attention to the unusual length to diameter ratio of these structures and use them where needed were " nanowire ", " nanochannel " or " nanowire " .
The new material has turned 200 times more " sticky " than the original , but " unsticking " is not destroyed due to the extreme strength of nanofibers.
In his article, the researchers point out that the material can find a variety of applications: if the result is confirmed, " reversible sverhkley " will immediately demand engineers.
The difficulty is that the production of nanotubes is extremely expensive , and so far only a few products based on them are used outside the laboratory.
... to be continued ...