Andrew ( Gabriel ) Livshits
In the present series, the readers , the authors set out to link the future work on the commercialization of any invention with the initial stages of work on its creation , especially in the stages of generating ideas
Inventor, the process of forming the basic ideas and principles to create his future invention , even without knowing the principles of TRIZ and ARIZ , he wants it or not, their uses , even intuitively
At the same time , TRIZ and ARIZ not help the inventor determine the estimated commercial value of his future inventions
Unlike unique repeatedly proven practice techniques and principles , the laws of technical systems that are basic for TRIZ and ARIZ , receptions commercialization and analyze the potential of inventions - as commercial products does not have a systemic theoretical framework
Recently, there are many publications which provides recommendations for the commercialization and we decided to use one of them that would give inventors firstly operational information , which they can , if desired, be adapted to the characteristics and advantages of his invention , and , most importantly, secondly, to show one of the possible versions of the principles and practical actions that show how to modify and adjust the features of the future of innovation in the development depending on market requirements
We think that the inclusion of possible market requirements allow generating step of the innovative idea to create such technical characteristics of the new product , which will contribute to a more confident and economically advantageous implementation of innovation, but also in the case of commercial significance score low to generate ideas , to abandon the idea and pay attention to anything else
We are in the articles devoted to TRIZ and ARIZ repeatedly noted that most inventions created are now integrative as in any modern efficient solutions and present digital control system and composite materials and nano- coatings and various integrative combination type - program system , method and apparatus
For such a complex , combined and integrated systems , principles of system analysis of their commercial value has yet to formulate and publish information about the methods , techniques and workloads commercialization effort in this inventors working today in the field of innovative projects
Scientists at MIT have found a way to increase production more suitable for modern infrastructure, biofuels , making a few changes in the yeast genome . The work is published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, and a brief summary of the Institute 's results .
Researchers set out to improve the content of high "big" alcohol to the mixture , which is produced during the fermentation of yeast .
Unlike ethanol , alcohols such better suited for modern infrastructure, as biofuels are more specific amount of energy.
The main of them is isopropanol having in its chain of four carbon atoms .
Achieve greater content of such alcohols failed due to changes in the localization of enzymes in yeast cells. Normally, the precursor compounds isopropanol first formed in the mitochondria , and then transported to the cytoplasm where they are converted into an alcohol.
Scientists decided to postpone the last step of the synthesis in mitochondria, adding to the genes corresponding enzymes special labels , guides synthesized protein in mitochondria.
As a result , the content of isopropanol in an alcohol produced by the modified yeast has increased 2.6 times. For heavier alcohols increase was even greater , 3-5.
The authors believe this impressive growth , although note that ethanol is still the main product of fermentation modified yeast.
Ethanol as a biofuel is used widely : in 2005 its production exceeded 35 billion liters. Its main steel producers U.S. and Brazil , and the main source - sugarcane .
In the future, scientists will focus on the study of the possibility of using non-food sources of sugar for the fermentation , ethanol production as the traditional method was to influence the market for food .
With the advent of integrated mixing and activation of fuel mixes and homogenizing emulsions , it was possible to consider use of methanol for fuel compositions, consisting of more viscous components , such as the number 5 fuel oil , number 6 fuel oil and some viscous bio - diesel fuels
Scientists from the University of California at Santa Barbara studied substance with which mussels attach themselves to rocks and sea developed on its basis adhesive for surgical operations.
The researchers' work is accepted for publication in the journal Advanced Health Materials, and its content authors presented at the annual conference AAAS, which report results ScienceNow.
Marine mussels live in the intertidal zone , where the problem of attachment to the substrate is particularly acute. They have learned to be fixed on the rocks due to the special glue , which is capable of directly solidify under water. This adhesive forms a threadlike structure on a substrate holding clam .
In mussel adhesive composition includes about 15 proteins. Many of these modified amino acids are dihydro-xyphenylalanine (DOPA), which is installed researchers determines the ability of the adhesive to solidify under water. These adhesives are often lacking surgeons for thin and sensitive tissues like embryonic membranes .
Scientists decided to simulate mussel adhesive modifying synthetic polymer polyethylene glycol residues dihydro-xyphenyl-alanine . The resulting material has been able to glue wet biological tissues .
As shown by experiments on rabbits , glue and a half times increase the likelihood of a successful outcome of the operation on the fetus . Such operations are carried out in utero , for example, in the case of fetal developmental defects like spina bifida .
Presented information is advisory in nature naturally and can be more accurate , informational purposes and may be used by each inventor specific to many factors inherent in the invention, or the direction of innovation
Techniques and methods of accounting requirements and market conditions for the formation and formulation parameters technical characteristics of new innovative products are at the very early stages of development and each inventor of today have to solve the problem of coordination and combination requirements as such inventions and their commercialization , as the products themselves and the real publication just concentrates all necessary information in one place