Andrew ( Gabriel ) Livshits
Techniques (principles ) address systemic ( technical) contradictions
Various lists inventive principles from the beginning of XX-th century published repeatedly .
Content authors arbitrarily included in them the techniques that seemed to them the best , without thinking about the nature of these techniques. Therefore, very often with measures aimed at improving the technical systems coexisted techniques , psychological , perfecting the human activities which solves the problem . None of these lists have not received any significant applications. Situation has changed only in 50 - 60s . with the emergence of TRIZ , with the advent of the concept of " technical contradiction ."
Technical ( system ) contradiction in TRIZ is a situation where an attempt to improve one characteristic technical system aggravates the other.
For example, increasing the structural strength of aircraft or rockets increases its weight and increase the accuracy of the measuring device it leads to complication of the circuit.
The analysis of large volumes of patent information showed that the elimination of approximately one and a half thousand of the most common technical contradictions there are 40 most powerful techniques that provide effective solutions.
In the creative workshop of the inventor techniques play a role of primary set of tools and to use them, we need certain skills. In the simplest case, the inventor simply perusing a list of receptions ( fingering them one by one ) , looking for a clue in solving their problems . This method is slow , but it is possible.
For more efficient use of special techniques developed a table in which are placed vertically characteristics of technical systems which are necessary to improve the conditions of the problem and the horizontal - the characteristics of which thus unacceptably degraded. At the intersection graph of the table indicates the number of techniques that are most likely to try to correct the technical contradiction .
List of methods of eliminating technical contradictions
1. Crushing principle :
a) to split into independent parts ;
b) to perform a collapsible ;
c) to increase the degree of fragmentation of the object.
2 . Principle issuance :
separated from the object " interfering " part ( " interfering " property ) or, conversely, select only the desired part ( the desired property ) .
3 . The principle of local quality :
a) move from a homogeneous structure of the object (or the external environment, external influence ) to inhomogeneous ;
b) different parts of the object must have ( perform ) the different functions ;
c) each part of the object must be in the conditions most favorable for its operation.
4 . Asymmetry Principle :
a) move from symmetrical to asymmetrical object ;
b) if an object is asymmetrical , increase the degree of asymmetry.
5 . The principle of association:
a) combine homogeneous or for objects related operations ;
b) combine in time homogeneous or related operations .
6. The principle of universality :
to perform several different functions , thereby eliminating the need for other objects.
7. The principle of " Matryoshka " :
a) One object is arranged inside the other, which in turn is located within the third , and so forth;
b) one object passes through the cavity in the other object.
8. Antivesa principle :
a) to compensate for the weight of the object with another compound having the lifting force ;
b) compensate for the weight of the object interaction with the environment (due to aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces).
9. The principle of prior antideystviya :
a) in advance to give the object a voltage opposite unacceptable or undesirable operating voltage ;
b) if the terms of the problem it is necessary to perform an action , it is necessary to make advance antideystvie .
10 . The principle of prior actions :
a) advance to perform the requested action (fully or partially );
b) pre- arrange the objects so that they can take effect without taking a time for delivery and the most convenient location.
11. The " pre- planted cushion" :
compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object prepackaged emergency funds.
12. Equipotential principle :
change working conditions so as to not have to raise or lower the object.
13. The " reverse" :
a) instead of action dictated by the conditions of the problem , perform the opposite effect ;
b) make a moving object or part of the environment fixed and fixed - moving ;
c) to turn the "upside down" , turn it .
14. Spheroidal principle :
a) go from straight to curved parts from flat surfaces to spherical , from parts made in the form of a cube and a parallelepiped to ball designs ;
b) use rollers , balls , spirals ;
c) to move from linear to rotary motion , the centrifugal force used .
15. The principle of dynamism :
a) the characteristics of the object (or environment) should be changed so as to be optimal at every stage ;
b) to divide into pieces that can move relative to each other;
c) if the object is stationary in general , make it moving , moving .
16. Principle of partial or excessive action :
if it is difficult to get 100 % of the desired effect , it is necessary to get " a little less " or " a little more " - a problem while significantly simplified.
17. Principle of the transition to another dimension :
a) the difficulties associated with the movement (or placement ) of the object along the line are eliminated if the object acquires the ability to move in two dimensions ( ie, on a plane) . Accordingly, problems associated with movement (or locate ) the objects in the same plane eliminates the transition to three-dimensional space ;
b) use a multi-storey layout of objects instead of a one-story ;
c) to tilt or to put it "on the side " ;
g ) use the back side of a given area ;
d ) use optical flux incident on an adjacent area or the back side available space .
18. The principle of using mechanical vibrations :
a) to cause to vibrate ;
b) If such a motion is committed to increase its frequency (up to the ultrasonic );
c) use the resonant frequency ;
g ) be used instead of mechanical vibrators piezo ;
d ) use of ultrasonic vibrations in conjunction with electromagnetic fields .
19. Principle batch :
a) move from continuous to intermittent ( pulse );
b) if the action is carried out periodically , the frequency change ;
c) use the pause between pulses for another action.
20. The principle of continuity of performance :
a) to work continuously (all parts of the object must always operate at full load );
b) eliminate idle and intermediate courses.
21. Principle breakthrough :
carry out the process or individual stages (eg , harmful or dangerous ) at high speed.
22. The " Blessing in disguise " :
a) use of harmful factors (in particular , the harmful effect of the medium) to obtain a positive effect;
b) eliminate harmful factor by adding other harmful factors ;
c) strengthen the harmful factor to such an extent that he ceased to be harmful.
23. Principle of feedback :
a) introduce feedback;
b) if the feedback is, change it.
24. The principle of " mediator " :
a) to use an intermediate object , transporting or transferring the action ;
b ) at the time attached to another object ( removable ) object.
25. The principle of self-service:
a) The facility must maintain itself by performing auxiliary and repair operations ;
b) use waste ( energy, matter ) .
26. Principle copy :
a) instead of the inaccessible , complex , expensive , inconvenient or fragile object to use it simplified and cheap copies ;
b) replace the object or objects of their optical system copies ( images ) . Use while zooming ( zoom in or copies);
c) If visible optical copies are used , move to infrared and ultraviolet copies .
27. Principle cheap fragility instead of durability :
expensive to replace a set of cheap objects , while sacrificing some of the qualities (eg , longevity ) .
28. Substitution principle mechanical system :
a) replace the mechanical scheme of optical , acoustic or " olfactory " ;
b) the use of electric , magnetic and electromagnetic fields to interact with the object ;
c) to move from fixed to movable fields , from fixed - to the changing time , from unstructured - to have a certain structure ;
g ) use a field in combination with ferromagnetic particles.
29. The principle of using pneumatic and gidrokonstruktsy :
instead of solid parts of an object to use gaseous and liquid : inflatable and gidronapolnyaemye , air cushion , hydrostatic and hydrojet .
30. The principle of using flexible shells and thin films :
a) instead of conventional designs use a flexible membrane and thin film;
b) to isolate the object from the external environment using flexible shells and thin films .
31. The principle use of porous materials :
a) to carry out the use of additional porous or porous elements ( insert, cover , etc. );
b) if the object is already made porous, pre- fill the pores of some substance .
32. Principle discoloration :
a) change the color of an object or environment;
b) change the degree of transparency of an object or an external medium.
33. The principle of uniformity :
objects that interact with the object to be made of the same material ( or close to it on the properties ) .
34. Garbage and regeneration principle parts:
a) fulfill their purpose or Orphaned part of the object must be discarded ( dissolved , evaporated , etc.) or modified directly in the course of work;
b) consumable parts of an object should be restored immediately in the course of work.
35. The principle changes in the physico -chemical parameters of the object :
a) change the physical state of the object;
b) change the concentration or consistency ;
c) change the degree of flexibility ;
d) to change the temperature.
36. Application of the principle of phase transitions :
use the phenomena occurring during phase transitions , such as changing the volume , release or absorption of heat , etc.
37. Application of the principle of thermal expansion :
a) use of the thermal expansion (or contraction) materials;
b) use of several materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion.
38. Application of the principle of strong oxidants :
a) replace the normal air enriched ;
b) replace the oxygen enriched air ;
c) the influence on the air and oxygen to ionizing radiation ;
g ) use ozonized oxygen;
d ) replace the ozonated oxygen ( or ionized ) ozone.
39. The principle use of inert atmosphere :
a) replace the conventional inert environment ;
b) carry out the process in a vacuum.
40. The principle application of composite materials :
move from homogeneous to composite materials .