Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits
Today, only the absolute optimist does not pay attention to the alarming pollution of any product remaining in all types of energy production
Inventors form system innovations that with varying degrees of success and allow to obtain the necessary amount of energy and does not pollute the environment to limit the irreversible
For a comparative analysis back to the definitions and characteristics, known for Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
The systems approach is a reflection and development of dialectical principle of "universal interconnection" and "development" and, in fact, is one of the principles of the dialectical method of cognition. The methodology of the systems approach involves representation of any object in the form of a comprehensive system and its consideration.
2. System - a complex of elements, regularly organized in space and time are interrelated and form a definite integral unity. The system is characterized by the composition of the elements, structure, and has a specific function.
3. Elements - is a relatively indivisible part of the whole, objects that together form a system. Element considered indivisible within to maintain a certain quality of the system.
4. Structure - naturally stable relationship between the elements, reflecting the shape, the way the elements and the nature of the interaction of the parties and their properties. Structure makes the system defined by a certain qualitatively different from the sum of the qualities of its constituent elements (because involves the interaction of elements with each other in different ways, only certain parties, properties and not in general.)
5. Function - the outward manifestation of the properties of objects (elements) in the system of relations, a certain mode of interaction of the object with the environment, the "ability" of the object. Systems have many features.
6. Subsystem (subsystem) - part of the system, which are in some arbitrary or naturally selected groups of items. Allocation subsystem is based on function. One element can sometimes coincide with a subsystem or enter directly into a number of different sub-systems. The connection between elements within the subsystems and within the system is different from the nature of the relationship between the subsystems themselves. Elements and subsystem components consolidated into a single system.
7. Super-system (meta) - a system of higher order in relation to this, in which the system operates, and is inscribed "rights" subsystem.
8. Technical system (TS) is an artificial material unity naturally organized in space and time and are in the concatenation of elements, which has the purpose of operation, meet some social needs. TS elements can be both artificial and natural. Every vehicle comes in two systems of relations. On the one hand - it is an object of the material world, obeying the laws of nature (especially the laws of physics as the most common), on the other hand, the vehicle acts as an element of social relations, because technology is only a tool for social purposes. If the vehicle is characterized by the spatial arrangement of the elements, the vehicle - a device or substance. If the vehicle is characterized by the organization of elements in time - dealing with the process.
The concept vehicle can formulate the main feature of the technical solution (TP): TP indicates a specific vehicle, the operation of which can achieve the goal, ie, the ratio of TC indicates to some purpose.
Based on the common understanding that natural hydrocarbon reserves are not unlimited, many lone inventors and inventive teams looking for any way to offer an alternative fuel, not always thinking about how this decision will be to work in the system as a set of elements
Small British company produced the first fuel from the air using the revolutionary technology that could help solve the energy crisis, the newspaper writes Independent. Air Fuel Synthesis company produced 5 liters of fuel in August, when it launched a small plant to produce liquid fuels from carbon dioxide and water vapor, according to author Steve Connor.
The company hopes that in two years it will be able to build a larger unit capable of producing a ton of fuel per day. "Although the process is still in its early stages and needs electricity from the national grid, the company believes that the result will be possible to use the power of renewable energy sources, wind power or tidal dams" - emphasizes the journalist.
"We took the carbon dioxide from the air and hydrogen from the water and turned these elements into fuel. Nobody does anything like this either in this country or elsewhere, as far as we know," - says CEO Peter Harrison. "Our fuel is able to work in existing engines. This means that can be used by existing transport infrastructure," - he said. He believes that the fuel can change the natural and economic landscape of the UK.
Originally intended to be produced by innovative fuel mix with the usual. The technology is also ideal for remote areas that have sufficient sources of renewable energy, but limited capacity for storage, said Harrison.
Although the prototype system developed for the release of carbon dioxide from the air, this part of the process is too inefficient in terms of commercial use, the author of this article. However, Professor Klaus Lackner of Columbia University in New York said that the high cost of any new technology is always in time is dramatically reduced.
Reports of this have appeared in numerous online publications, and I think in different interpretations
Here is another post about the same method for the solution of the energy problem
British company Air Fuel Synthesis technology of production of gasoline by synthesis of carbon dioxide and water vapor, reports The Daily Mail.
According to the company, from August to its researchers built a miniature processing complex could create 5 liters of petrol.
In Air Fuel Synthesis believe that their development can be the solution to the growing global energy crisis. To date, the production of one ton of fuel by new technology costs about 400 pounds (644 dollars), writes Motor.ru.
The technological process of the company includes the mixing of the air with sodium hydroxide. The resultant of the sodium bicarbonate is electrolyzed, which creates a natural carbon dioxide. Subsequently, it is mixed with hydrogen extracted from water to produce a hydrocarbon mixture. After mixing with the fuel additives, so you can fill the car with fuel.
The company currently uses electricity from the network, but in the future hopes to become completely independent from its own renewable energy sources.
In Air Fuel Synthesis expect after 2 years to build a complete processing facility that will be able to produce a ton of gasoline a day, and even after 15 years, the company plans to produce a synthetic diesel on a commercial scale.
In connection with these reports are completely unnecessary reminder that the long-known effective renewable energy, one of the cheapest and effective of which is methanol
• Methanol poison aluminum. Another problem is the use of aluminum carburetors and fuel injection systems in internal combustion engines. This applies mainly to the crude methanol containing significant amounts of impurities of formic acid and formaldehyde. Technically pure methanol containing water begins to react with aluminum at temperatures above 50 ° C, and with ordinary carbon steel does not react at all.
• hydrophilic. Methanol draws water that is causing the separation of mixtures of diesel fuel and methanol.
• Methanol, like ethanol, increases the capacity of plastic fumes for some plastics (eg density polyethylene). This feature increases the risk of increasing the methanol emissions of volatile organic compounds, which can lead to a decrease in the concentration of ozone and increased solar radiation.
• Reduced volatility in cold weather: engines running on pure methanol, may have trouble starting at temperatures below +10 ° C and have increased fuel consumption to reach operating temperature. This problem, however, is easily solved by adding methanol 10-25% gasoline.
The low level of impurities of methanol can be used in existing vehicles fueled with proper corrosion inhibitors. Sc. European fuel quality directive (European Fuel Quality Directive) allows the use of up to 3% methanol with an equal amount of additives in gasoline, used in Europe. Today, China uses more than one billion gallons of methanol as a transportation fuel in the low-level blends used in existing vehicles, as well as higher-mix in vehicles for use of methanol as a fuel.
In the application of methanol as a fuel should be noted that the volume and mass energy (calorific value) of methanol at 40-50% less than gasoline, but the heating spirtovozdushnyh and gasoline fuel-air mixtures when burned in an engine differs slightly for the reason that high value of the heat of vaporization of methanol improves cylinder filling the engine and reduce its thermal stress, which increases the efficiency of combustion spirtovozdushnoy mixture. As a result of this increase in power output is increased by 10-15%. Racing engines running on methanol with a higher octane rating than gasoline are the compression ratio higher than 15:1, while in the ordinary spark-ignition internal combustion engine compression ratio for unleaded gasoline is usually not more than 11,5:1. Methanol can be used as a classic internal combustion engines, and in special fuel cell to produce electricity.
Methanol is an important quality that the exhaust gases B2-3 times less toxic compounds than with gasoline. However, the above-mentioned disadvantages and small resources of methanol near impossible to use it today as a standalone fuel.
So it is used as an additive to gasoline. Used in the experiments with a mixture of methanol from 5 to 30%. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases is reduced by 14-72%. Methanol-gasoline slightly reduces engine performance. However, keep in mind that the addition of methanol, for example, in the amount of 15% increases the octane rating of the mixture from 88 to 95.8. With the appropriate alteration of the engine in order to increase the degree of compression on it, you can still save on fuel consumption.
Due to the fact that, thanks to the introduction of innovative technologies for extracting shale gas resources of raw materials for the production of methanol increased significantly and this factor allows us to hope that the limited resources of the air will not even be a fantasy lovers sensations and experiments used for the production of existing and more effective products