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Application of the principles and methods of TRIZ in the preliminary stages of commercialization of fuel nano - technologies (Part Two)

Andrew ( Gabriel ) Livshits

Technical creativity and its highest manifestation - the creation of original self-sufficient technical solutions - became the basis of effective inventions requires a tremendous work and creative impulse, time-consuming , incommensurate with the time spent in only technical or technological components of any innovation project

In today's market , when the final stage of the actual use of the invention may be just the product for which there is strong demand , the practical reality for inventors is the need of cooperation with experts on the commercialization of innovations

Since the technical level of equipment and technology is constantly growing, following the laws , tenets and principles of TRIZ and ARIZ requires constant comparison with the existing provisions of the newly arisen circumstances

And even after realizing the need to modify and optimize the technological basis for such cooperation , after realizing the need for deeper cooperation with specialists in the commercialization of new technological ideas and solutions , there are questions that can only solve the inventor himself , better understanding and knowing all the peculiarities of his invention

It seems that just to help inventors in the identification process and a better understanding of the capabilities and features of their inventions , TRIZ and ARIZ adaptation to modern conditions can give all the necessary analytical tools

Opening new markets, both internal and external , and economic development organizations from the craft shop and factory to such concerns as US Steel, illustrates the same process of economic mutation - if I may use biological term - that incessantly revolutionizes the economic structure from within ... , destroying the old structure and creating a new one. This process of " creative destruction" is the very essence of capitalism. Within its framework, have to live every capitalist concern ...

Conduct of an enterprise should be assessed only against the background of the overall process , in the context generated by this situation. Necessary to clarify its role in the constant stream of "creative destruction" , it is impossible to understand this thread ...

The proposed future readers a series of articles , the authors set out to link the future work on the commercialization of any invention with the initial stages of work on its creation , especially in the stages of generating ideas

Inventor, the process of forming the basic ideas and principles to create his future invention , even without knowing the principles of TRIZ and ARIZ , he wants it or not, their uses , even intuitively

At the same time , TRIZ and ARIZ not help the inventor determine the estimated commercial value of his future inventions

Unlike unique repeatedly proven practice techniques and principles , the laws of technical systems that are basic for TRIZ and ARIZ , receptions commercialization and analyze the potential of inventions - as commercial products does not have a systemic theoretical framework

Recently, there are many publications which provides recommendations for the commercialization and we decided to use one of them that would give inventors firstly operational information , which they can , if desired, be adapted to the characteristics and advantages of his invention , and , most importantly, secondly, to show one of the possible versions of the principles and practical actions that show how to modify and adjust the features of the future of innovation in the development depending on market requirements

We think that the inclusion of possible market requirements allow generating step of the innovative idea to create such technical characteristics of the new product , which will contribute to a more confident and economically advantageous implementation of innovation, but also in the case of commercial significance score low to generate ideas , to abandon the idea and pay attention to anything else

We are in the articles devoted to TRIZ and ARIZ repeatedly noted that most inventions created are now integrative as in any modern efficient solutions and present digital control system and composite materials and nano- coatings and various integrative combination type - program system , method and apparatus

For such a complex , combined and integrated systems , principles of system analysis of their commercial value has yet to formulate and publish information about the methods , techniques and workloads commercialization effort in this inventors working today in the field of innovative projects

However, there are many examples of how the structure and system of the modern large enterprise eliminates innovative projects and concentrate on as it seems at the moment of decision-making , most effective and innovative ideas , often leaving behind no less effective solutions , inventors and authors are obtained ( and often undeservedly ) serious psychological trauma

Scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison was able to prove that the laws of friction for nanostructures do not differ from the classical laws . This was reported in a press release published on the website of the university .

Article researchers appeared in the journal Nature.

The friction surface in the absence of the surface layer between the liquid material (the so- called dry friction) creates irregularities data surfaces which engage each other , as well as the interaction forces between the particles constituting the surface.

As part of its study, the researchers built a computer model that calculates the friction force between nano-surface .

Within the model, these surfaces are simply as a collection of molecules for which the calculated intermolecular forces .

As a result, scientists have been able to establish that the friction force is proportional to the number of interacting particles. Researchers themselves propose to consider is the number of so-called analogue of the true area of contact between macroscopic objects .

It is known that the friction force is directly proportional to this area ( not to be confused with the usual area of contact surfaces of bodies ) .

In addition the researchers were able to show that the friction nanosurface can be considered within the framework of the classical theories of friction uneven surfaces .

EU intends in the next ten years to invest 5.5 billion euros in the development of nanotechnology and embedded systems , writes British newspaper The Register.

Nanotechnology ENIAC project will receive funding in the amount of three billion euros and will cover all possible aspects of the use of nanotechnology.

European engineers have been actively engaged in the development of devices using such technologies .

So , February 25, 2013 cell phone manufacturer Nokia introduced nanobraslet Morph, which can be converted into a phone, player , PDA and other devices .

In turn, the consortium to establish ARTEMIS embedded microcomputers allocated funds amounting to 2.5 billion euros. In ARTEMIS already includes Airbus, Ericsson AB, Nokia and ST Microelectronics.

In 2007, the European market has sold over four billion embedded processors in a variety of devices , worth about 60 billion euros.

It is expected that the market for embedded systems , which are characterized by low power consumption and small size, will grow by 14 percent per year.
Furthermore, the EU will spend € 19 million on the development of technology P2P Next, which will allow broadcasters to use the advantages of digital content distribution via file sharing .

Nokia and Cambridge University presented at the New York exhibition "Design and flexible mind " nanotechnology wearable mobile device concept Morph, which can stretch and bend . Morph worked over 10 engineers and 25 Nokia researchers from Cambridge.

User, for example , can use the keyboard as Morph and then bent and worn as a bracelet , transmitting mobile calls on a headset . Also , Morph if necessary can turn into a music player and other devices .

Interestingly, when the transformations Morph is almost translucent , and almost the entire surface of the device is , judging by the images , touch screen.

Requires that the Morph will be implemented in mobile devices over the next seven years, with the first - the most expensive models .

Physics of the Italian Institute of Technology in Arnesano learned to get nanofibers that can act as a working body of the laser.

In the future, these fibers can be the basis "laser tissue ." The study laid out in a preprint archive at Cornell University , briefly (but with errors ) it writes a blog about Technology Review.

The method that the authors used for the production of fibers , called electrospinning . It involves squeezing the thinnest strands of liquid polymer by applying a high voltage to the liquid .

Voltage compensates the action of surface tension and allows you to create thread , much finer than those produced by conventional methods. The thickness of such strands tens of nanometers.

In order to make the optical properties of the filaments , researchers added to the polymer several types of fluorescent dyes ( coumarin and rhodamine ) . In this case , the resulting fibers became , in fact, in the dye laser . Irradiating laser fiber other ( in this paper used Nd: YAG), scientists made fibers emit coherent light of a lower frequency .

According to scientists , laser nanofibers can be used to create a flexible and soft tissue radiating . This fabric can be the basis of "smart surfaces " and " other technical applications," the nature of which , however , the authors did not specify .

Soft and flexible electronics is the focus of interest of many engineers. Recently, scientists have been able to create soft solar panels on the basis of woven , woven hybrid photodetector and batteries and fabric with silver printing electronic circuits.

British engineers have created from water-oil micelles artificial "tissues" that can be compressed and controlled manner to conduct electrical current . The work is published in the journal Science, and its summary results NatureNews.
Structural unit created by the authors " tissue " was not a living cell and the aqueous micelle , that is a drop of water , surrounded by a double layer of surfactant lipids ( SAW) .

Micelles can be formed in an aqueous solution of lipids and spontaneously , but to accelerate and control this process , scientists have created a special device .

The device shoots water droplets in lipid- oil solution , where around them to form stable "coat" of surfactants. The resulting micelles using a three-dimensional printer printed on the substrate , collecting them from the bulk structure.

To make such structures move scientists micelles created two kinds of water and of conventional saline.

Because the lipid membrane is permeable to water but not the salt in the resulting "fabric" water rushed into the salt micelles , causing them to swell . Typing micelle layers , the scientists were able to get an artificial structure to fold in the right direction .

Furthermore, to impart a "fabric" conductivity along the selected path , researchers added to a solution of protein - molecule toxins. They are fixed in the lipid membrane , creating channels , sufficient to conduct electricity. Such conductive micelles could be collected in the conductive strands .

According to the authors, their goal was to understand how artificial tissues may be similar to live and work technology for their printing .

Previously, scientists have tried to use 3D- printers artificial tissues of living cells. Devoted to such work , such as working groups Anthony Atala .

An alternative and perhaps more promising for the next time the method is a method detsellyurizirovannyh matrices . It involves getting artificial human tissue from human cells and the intercellular substance of the animal.

In order to bring up the topic of the use of similar technological methods in fuel technologies that provide the structure of fuel mixtures or emulsions , consisting of fuel globules having components in the nano -meter scale factor . need to consider the fundamental unit of hydro - mechanical systems that form and homogenized said fuel Composites

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