Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits
For years, environmentalists warned that it should not lead to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has exceeded the threshold of 350 parts per million, but mankind for the first time crossed the "red line."
This week, the station at Mauna Loa was recorded record high concentration of carbon dioxide: 400 milliliters per cubic meter of air. The last time this level of carbon dioxide, which is considered one of the causes of global warming on Earth existed before the ice age.
Experts believe that air pollution may be a cause of climate change, to cause drought and floods, which in turn can lead to an increase in world food prices.
On the island of Hawaii, on the slopes of Mauna Loa, the observatory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States. At this station, located at a considerable distance from the world's industrial centers, measurements made since 1958. And the latest data obtained here may indicate the consolidation trend of global warming.
Scientists say that in the next few weeks, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will drop by a few parts per million, as part of the summer with the onset of the carbon dioxide absorbed by vegetation.
Carbon dioxide is certainly the most civilized, yet protected by the limitations of modern industry standards anomaly and Urban Development
There are many examples of a much more barbaric violations of ecological balance, especially threaten the health of contact with the phenomenon of people
That's just one example:
In early March, in the Sverdlovsk region, near the town of Mikhailovsky, streets and trees were covered with yellow snow. Despite the fact that on the order of the Ministry of natural resources, chemical precipitation samples were made only on March 16 proved that the concentration of the yellow snow nickel, manganese, chromium, lead, zinc, copper and cadmium are significantly higher than normal.
The height of the snow cover in yellow Mihajlovsk was between 2 and 5 centimeters, writes "Komsomolskaya Pravda in Yekaterinburg." Environmentalists say such pollution emission characteristic of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy.
However, meteorologists have put forward a more optimistic version, suggesting that the dye in the yellow snow could soil particles from the Caspian depression, Sverdlvskuyu migrated to the area because of the warm weather front.
Specialists in these reports tend to lose the opportunity to put forward optimistic and explanations, they firmly know what threatens the inhabitants of neighboring towns such snow
Residents of Moscow and other large cities are also constantly subjected to the health hazards, who were the result of an outdated urban infrastructure
Moscow weather forecasters warned residents of the Russian capital that light drifting snow, was repeatedly in recent days, has a technological origin.
Gidrometeobyuro explained that the source of the "man-made" are harmful precipitation and evaporation emissions power plants and factories. They accumulate in the atmosphere, freezing, falling back to the ground, writes today NEWSmsk.com.
This phenomenon is known as "inversion" means a particular temperature distribution in the atmosphere, wherein the bottom is colder than the top. However, the harm tehnosnega very relative, since the crystallization of steam escaping from the pipes of municipal enterprises, happens all the time.
Snow lying on the roads that pass close to the CHP, is always very dirty - no matter what the origin of it, "natural" or "technical." As always, the greatest risk are health of residents living near the businesses.
Given the constantly updated hazards appear exotic solutions, primarily energy issues in all possible aspects
Using ultra-high pressure, U.S. researchers have created a new substance that can accumulate and store huge amounts of energy. According to this index, according to the researchers, it is second only to the nucleus of the atom, ITAR-TASS reported.
"This is the most condensed form of energy storage, in addition to nuclear energy," - says the head of operations at Washington State University Chung-Shik Yu
According to Yu, the present study demonstrates the ability to store mechanical energy in the form of chemical energy of a substance with an extremely strong chemical bonds.
Substance created by scientists in the future will probably find a number of applications, including the creation of a new class of energy and fuel.
As an example, and almost fabulous solution:
The work of the university inventor of solutions drives his own car. After he bit her upgraded, fuel consumption is reduced by 35%. To do this he took water, and plant for electrolysis.
While politicians and scientists have puzzled over the search for solution to the problem of global warming, a humble inventor decided to operate on the principle: for the powers that helps those who help themselves. Without waiting for the mercy of any nature, nor of the giants of the automotive industry, it has created a device that is almost completely neutralizes the emission of polluting gases produced by the vehicle. On the "H-prefix" to the engine is told in a report RTVi television correspondent Ilya Viskinda.
In the barn next to the house of our inventor has created a device that is using the process of electrolysis splits water molecules into two. The voltage generated by alternator, starts the process in reactors electrolysis of water molecules decompose and thus produces hydrogen from water. Notably, one liter of water can be obtained up to a thousand liters of hydrogen.
Strictly speaking, an old car that this Kulibin used for experimental trips, rides off on the water. The internal combustion engine is responsible for producing the energy needed to run the reactors in addition, fuel mixed with hydrogen, increases the engine power.
That's just all about all he needs less fuel than is used in normal conditions, and the exhaust gas is not produced, because all that can harm the environment, burned almost to the ground. In fact, concern for the environment and pushed the inventor to this experiment.
"It all started with what I thought about the extent of global warming and about what kind of contribution I can make to the fight against it. We constantly hear about the search for solutions to reduce emissions of gases that pollute the atmosphere. And I thought that I could to contribute in this direction, "- he said channel RTVi.
But, according to the inventor, and the desire to save money was an important factor for the works. When the prototype was ready, he realized that his efforts were not in vain.
"Every day I go to work at the university. And I soon saw that I was to go on the road a lot less fuel," - he said.
The inventor wants to put on a production flow "of hydrogen-top boxes" to the car. He believes that those who take up this project could become a pioneer in the field of the protection of nature, an example for the world.
Recent years have shown that mankind owes to think in a new, friendly nature, direction. Environmental degradation and global energy crisis led scientists to look for a way out of this situation, inventing new items that either do not pollute the environment or prevent the contamination. Some of the latest inventions of the past years have now really changing environmental conditions on the planet for the better.
The eternal light "green" LED-lights
The winner of the recent competition "L Prize", organized by the U.S. Department of Energy, has become a seemingly ordinary light bulb from a reputable company Philips. However, unlike the army billionth of his sisters, this lamp-winner recognized as the most environmentally friendly. It uses less than 10 watts of energy and emits the same amount of "warm white" light as a regular 60-watt. The lamp was tested in different conditions (high and low temperatures, varying humidity) for 7000 hours (or 9.5 months), and it continued to burn. The developers also report that "life time" in the new invention - 25,000 hours, whereas conventional bulbs missing is 1000-2000 hours.
Ultimately, the power savings when using LED-bulb was 83%. As a prize, the Dutch company Philips will receive a U.S. $ 10 million.
The only "drawback" of the new SUPER SAVER LED-lamp is its high cost. And although the company Philips, plans to release the bulb on the market before 2012, until called her the price, presumably one "eco-lamp" will cost U.S. $ 40 and above. The price can fall only after 5-6 years of active sales.
Self-destructing plastic bags
Today the disposal of your old equipment and waste is the only way to fully protect the environment from the harmful effects of man-made debris. Stavropol State University scientists invented the packets that do not pollute the environment and decompose in the soil under the action of microorganisms.
"New, clean, the film is developed on the basis of methyl cellulose and protein complexes - commented invention Head of the Department of the university medbiohimii Oksana Vorobyov. - In this process of degradation in soil is not 10 years, as for polyethylene, and two weeks."
It is now produced prototypes and patents on them. Based on this film, including wound healing dressings are being developed that can be used in medicine.
Reusable electronic paper
Taiwanese scientists from ITRI after several months of research announced the creation of a reusable electronic "paper", which they called "i2R e-paper".
"Paper" This composition reminds all familiar liquid crystal panel, but it works without electricity - that is, the reading of the text does not require additional lighting. Use only the effects of the heat: using thermal printer, which is still being charged from the mains, the text is printed on a page, and with its help is erased.
This allows you to update the text on a page to 260 times, which, in turn, promises to turn the modern concepts of documents, books and newspapers, as well as the outdoor advertising - billboards and posters, which are produced in large numbers and spend it on an unimaginable number timber.
At flexible "paper" "i2R e-paper" wide color palette, with her set of design options. The developers claim that the manufacturing process of the invention has low toxicity.
According to them, the novelty can be purchased in a year or two, and the cost of such a sheet of A4 will be $ 2.
Flexible concrete canvas
The unusual, yet easy to use, while eco-friendly and ergonomic construction material offered humanity the British engineers Will Crawford Peter Bryuvin.
"Concrete Canvas" (or - concrete canvas) - a flexible material, which is a cement-impregnated fabric freezes on contact with water and turns into a thin water-and fire resistant wall.
Initially, the material looks like a roll of rubber, which should take the form of (for example, inflate or stretched on a metal frame) and pour over the water.
Concrete Canvas Shelters are sold in boxes, rolls able to deploy two people in one hour without any extra help. 24 hours after spraying with water or building design will be ready for use. With concrete, you can create web space measuring 25 and 54 square meters.
The new eco-friendly building material is 95% more compact than usual, it is much more convenient for transportation. In addition, unlike conventional structures made of concrete, with time a new concrete deck will be "green" in the literal sense - it will bloom the plants, creating additional design effect.
Leading in Israel Fuel Company "Sonol" unveiled its new development - a high-tech gasoline Gold-95, the use of which would save drivers up to 4% fuel and 20% will reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
Gold-95 initiated by the "Sonol" in cooperation with "Lubrizol Corporation" - the world's leading company for the production of additives, additives and lubricants. As a result of Israeli drivers offered an innovative product with an octane number of 95 and a number of improvements that reduce the corrosivity of the fuel, reduce carbon formation, and as a result, the wear of engine parts.
Extension of the engine - one more contribution to the environment. However, the main advantages of the new gasoline is its cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness.
When using Gold-95 pointed out that the reduction of fuel consumption at low engine speeds (while waiting for the green light, the slow movement of vehicles in traffic jams) by an average of about 4%. This allows you to save annually more than 300 shekels private drivers and about 645 shekels average customer stations.
Also using Gold-95 significantly increased fuel efficiency, resulting in the low speed by 20% to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, which primarily form and smog as well as up to 4% reduction in carbon dioxide emission - including and at the expense of fuel economy.
Thus the cost of the new fuel does not exceed the cost of conventional gasoline. Today is a new high-tech gasoline Gold-95 can be poured into the tank of his car at the gas station "Sonol" across the country.
One of the obstacles that occur in the innovation process of protecting the environment is the high cost of environmental technologies
As an example, the program to turn Israel into a center for research and development related to the creation of alternative sources of energy.
The plan was prepared by a special commission headed by the Economic Adviser to the Government as part of the government's decision to stimulate the development of the alternative energy sources.
The government's decision was immediately under a three grounds. First, Israel has no oil fields and is totally dependent on oil imports. Second, the country that will be able to take a leading position in the market of alternative energy sources, will receive a significant economic advantage in the following decades.
And last but not least, the money the oil industry are flocking to regimes that are actively sponsoring anti-Israeli activities, such as Iran. Therefore, freeing the world from the "oil dependence" would be a serious blow to the enemies
According to information published by the newspaper The Marker, the Israeli government is going to act in the same way as in the 90's of last century, when the state program operated stimulate high-tech.
Thus, the partial state funding (600 million NIS) will set up two venture capital funds that invest money in start-up companies working in the field of alternative energy sources. Another 200 million shekels will be allocated to companies already passed the stage of product development, but got stuck at the stage of testing due to lack of money.
NIS 520 million will be allocated for grants to scientists involved in research in this area, the government will spend 150 million on the establishment of research centers, 340 million shekels will be used to stimulate international cooperation. NIS 110 million will be allocated for the coordination of all work in this area at the Prime Minister's Office and to overcome bureaucratic obstacles.
An equally important part of the plan, which allows a tremendous increase in public investment by the private sector is the intention to impose any tax on direct investment in alternative energy sources. Tax credits will be determined by long-term investment in the Israeli economy.
According to The Marker, to date Israel has 60 start-up companies at different stages of the development of products that fall under the category of alternative energy sources.
It's all from the point of view of the organization, financing and investing
There and the latest technology that will help make a real difference
Scientists at Stanford University in California, and Yonsei University in Seoul (South Korea), managed to get an electric current from the algae cells. The cells generate electricity during photosynthesis - the process by which plants convert sunlight into chemical energy.
Scientists said that this can be considered a first step towards an environmentally friendly process for creating bio-electricity, which will not pollute the environment with carbon dioxide, according to GlobalScience.ru.
"As far as we know, we are the first who managed to extract electrons out of living plant cells," - said Professor Ryu VonHeng of Yonsei University, lead author of a paper published in the March issue of Nano Letters. Ryu conducted experiments in collaboration with Professor Fritz Prinz engineering.
Researchers have developed a unique ultra-sharp nanoelectrodes made of gold and designed specifically for entry into the cell. They carefully inserted through the membrane, which protects the cell and the cell survives. Electrode collects electrons which are generated in the photosynthetic cell light generating small electric current.
"Our project is still at the stage of scientific development - said Ryu. - We have been working with single cells to prove the fundamental possibility of getting the electrons in this way."
Plants use photosynthesis to convert light energy into chemical energy stored in the form of sugars, which they use as food. This process takes place in chloroplasts, cellular power plants that produce sugar and impart leaves and algae green. In the chloroplasts, water is split into oxygen, protons and electrons. Sunlight penetrates the hronoplasty and transfers electrons to a higher energy level, after which they capture protein.
Electrons move in proteins which capture more and more energy electrons for synthesis of sugars, until all the energy spent electrons.
In this experiment, the researchers in the intercepted electrons when they are at the highest energy level. They placed the gold electrodes in hronoplasty algae cells and siphoned out electrons, generating a small electric current.
As a result, scientists have been able to produce electricity is an environmentally friendly manner without emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The only byproducts of photosynthesis are protons and oxygen.
"This method of energy generation may be the cleanest source of energy - said Ryu. - But the main question - whether it is cost-effective?".
Ryu said that one of the cells they still managed to get only one pikoamper. It is so paltry amount that, in order to get as much energy as is stored in the penlight batteries would be needed to gather energy for an hour with a trillion cells photosynthesizing. Besides, the cells die after hour. According to Ryu, they can die because of tiny leaks in the membrane electrode in the entrance to the cell or due to the loss of energy that they need for normal processes of life.
He said the next step will be to upgrade the device electrode, with a view to extending the life of the cell.
The method of obtaining electrons from the living cells of efficient combustion of biofuels, as biofuels contains only 3-6% of the available solar energy, the scientist said. His design of the process does not require the maintenance of combustion, which is spent on the part of the stored energy. Obtaining electron efficiency in this study was 20%. According to Ryu, the efficiency can theoretically reach and 100%. (Photovoltaic solar panels work with an efficiency of 20-40%).
In the future, the researchers plan to use plant cells with larger hronoplastami, which will increase the area of electron collection. This will increase the electrode and have more energy. With more tenacious cells and an increased ability to collecting electrode can make the process more ambitious.
Scientists from Stanford University, located in California, used nanotechnology to create ultra-light flexible battery or super capacitor, in the form of ordinary piece of paper. This sheet is dipped in the ink containing nanoparticles, according Innovanews.ru.
As one of the developers of Yi Qi, the materials used - special. They are one-dimensional structure of small diameter. This small diameter helps the ink, stuffed with nanoparticles are well absorbed into the fiber structure of the paper sheet.
Paper capacitor can endure 40,000 recharge cycles - this is an order of magnitude more than lithium-ion batteries. Nanomaterials improve conductivity, allowing electricity to move faster. Even if a crumpled sheet, paper battery will still work.
According to the professor of chemistry Peydonga Young, the technology will be commercialized in the near future. This is potentially a very cheap quality and flexible battery, he concluded.