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Innovative modification of fuel blends on the basis of the dynamic dissolution of combustible gases in a liquid hydrocarbon fuels (Part Four)

Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits

U.S. Navy tested the new fuel mixture poured into the tanks fighter F/A-18 Super Hornet, reports Flightglobal. American aircraft flew at a speed of Mach 1.2 (1,380 miles per hour).
A total of flight, during which was used afterburner, lasted 45 minutes. Now experts are studying how to reflect the use of biofuels in engines F/A-18.

In the tanks of aircraft has been added to a mixture of 50 percent conventional jet fuel and 50 percent biofuel, which was produced from camelina, plants of the cabbage family that is not used for food.
Until the middle of June 2010 the U.S. Navy going to take a 15 F/A-18 flight on biofuel. If they are found to be successful, the Navy can switch to the new fuel mixture.

In the United States now has a program to convert all aircraft to a new kind of fuel that will enable the military to save significant money on buying kerosene for aircraft. At the end of March 2010 in the United States made its maiden flight on biofuel attack aircraft A-10 Thunderbolt II.
The flight was successful. Now this plane also runs a series of tests with the new fuel mixture. As expected, the Air Force transferred all its planes on biofuels by 2016.

In November 2009, the U.S. Air Force began to fuel the creation of the Center for Aerospace Research. This center will develop an alternative fuel for the fighters, which in the long term will opt out of the use of traditional jet fuel in aircraft.
Construction of the center is scheduled for completion by the summer of 2010. It will spend about $ 2.5 million.
In the U.S., for the first time flew combat aircraft, filled with a mixture of biofuel and jet fuel, according to Defence Talk. As biofuel, fuel produced from used vegetable fats. It was called HRJ. The test aircraft was held March 25, 2010 pilot of the 40th Test Squadron at Eglin Air Force Base, USA.

The official results of the tests so far not been made public, but according to the test pilot Major Chris Seeger (Chris Seager), no difficulties in flight were recorded. The tests were carried out on attack aircraft A-10 Thunderbolt II.

The proportions in which was mixed conventional and biofuels, are not specified. It is only known that biofuels were produced from "Ryzhik," plants of the "Cabbage Soup" is not used as food.

In mid-November 2009 it was announced that the U.S. Air Force intend to gradually switch to biofuels. In particular, it is now created in the U.S. fuel research center for the aerospace industry, which will develop an alternative fuel for the fighters.

Construction of the center is scheduled for completion by the summer of 2010. It will spend about $ 2.5 million.

The U.S. Air Force is the largest consumer of fuel in the country. Each year, the Air Force bought 2.4 billion gallons (9.07 billion liters).

The purpose of the U.S. Air Force is the transfer of half of the aircraft on the use of biofuels by 2016. In this case, all aircraft in the U.S. Air Force must obtain a certificate of fitness for use of biofuels by 2012.

Scientific Research Laboratory (NRL) The U.S. Navy intends to develop a rotation, or spin, detonation engine (Rotating Detonation Engine, RDE), which in future will be able to replace conventional gas turbine ship propulsion.

According to the NRL, the new engines will allow the military to reduce fuel consumption, while improving the energy out of power plants.

Currently, the U.S. Navy used 430 gas turbine engine (GTE) for 129 vehicles. Each year, they consume fuel at two billion dollars.

According to the NRL, thanks RDE military will be able to save on fuel up to 400 million dollars a year. RDE will be able to produce ten percent more power than conventional CCD.

A prototype of RDE has been created, but when these engines will start to arrive in the Navy, is still unknown.

The basis of the RDE lay developments NRL, obtained by creating a pulsed detonation engine (Pulse Detonation Engine, PDE). The work of such power plants is based on a stable detonation combustion of the fuel mixture.

In the case of motors with pulsating detonation wave propagates in the fuel mixture faster than the speed of sound, during the chemical combustion of the mixture in the combustion chamber pressure is not time to change significantly, but then increases abruptly at times.

Thereafter, the expansion of combustion products in the nozzle to form a jet. Last on the ships will rotate the blades of the gas turbine.

One advantage of detonation engine is warming up the fuel mixture up to the passage of fire the-rethrough when the shock wave. The subsequent fuel ignition mixture also takes place in the detonation thereby possible to obtain a stable cycle of the engine.

One of the challenges of creating RDE is the imperfection of the materials are not able to provide a great resource of the power plant.

In the rotary engine detonation, unlike pulsating rotating detonation wave is formed, it is like "wear out" around the annular combustion chamber.

This principle allows to significantly reduce the noise power of the entire plant, to increase fuel efficiency (in particular, due to the lower fuel requirements for initiation of detonation of a new cycle), and also to achieve continuous detonation - the previous cycle of the explosive combustion prevents subsequent.

RDE themselves can be constructed without any moving parts, thus ensuring ease of maintenance and the relative cheapness of production compared with conventional internal combustion engines of other types. RDE until you plan to use to upgrade power plants already standing on U.S. Navy ships.

It should be noted that in addition to the development of NRL rotating detonation engine deals with the University of Texas at Arlington.

It creates propulsion engine called continuous detonation. New engines in the future can be used not only by ship but also on airplanes.

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