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Andrew ( Gabreal ) Livshits

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC and UNITED INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES , GmbH Integrated research team is pioneered electrode-less (contactless) Impedance Resonance Technology (IRT) for monitoring and measuring of liquids’ composition. The technology is based on theory of dielectric spectroscopy.

In general, dielectric spectroscopy (sometimes called impedance spectroscopy) measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency. It is based on the interaction of an external field with the electric dipole moment of the sample, often expressed by permittivity.

There are a number of different dielectric mechanisms, connected to the way a studied medium reacts to the applied field.

Each dielectric mechanism is centered on its characteristic frequency, which is the reciprocal of the characteristic time of the process. In general, dielectric mechanisms can be divided into relaxation and resonance processes.

The most common dielectric mechanisms, starting from high frequencies, are:

 Electronic polarization (visual spectrum)

 Atomic polarization (Infra Red spectrum)

 Dipole relaxation (MHz – GHz)

 Ionic relaxation (KHz)

 Dielectric relaxation (KHz – GHz)

Our working frequencies are in a range of KHz- MHz-low_GHz, so we are dealing with Dielectric relaxation, Ionic relaxation and Dipole relaxation.

Dipole relaxation originates from permanent and induced dipoles aligning to an electric field. Their orientation polarization is disturbed by thermal noise (which misaligns the dipole vectors from the direction of the field), and the time needed for dipoles to relax is determined by the local viscosity.

These two facts make dipole relaxation heavily dependent on temperature and chemical surrounding.

 Dielectric relaxation as a whole is the result of the movement of dipoles (dipole relaxation) and electric charges (ionic relaxation) due to an applied alternating field, and is usually observed in the frequency range 10²-10E10 Hz.

 Dielectric relaxation is the momentary delay (or lag) in the dielectric constant of a material. This is usually caused by the delay in molecular polarization with respect to a changing electric field in a dielectric medium (e.g. inside capacitors or between two large conducting surfaces).

 Dielectric relaxation in changing electric fields could be considered analogous to hysteresis in changing magnetic fields. Relaxation in general is a delay or lag in the response of a linear system, and therefore dielectric relaxation is measured relative to the expected linear steady state (equilibrium) dielectric values.

 The time lag between electrical field and polarization implies an irreversible degradation of free energy.

Molecular dipoles

Many molecules have such dipole moments due to non-uniform distributions of positive and negative charges on the various atoms. A molecule with a permanent dipole moment is called a polar molecule.

A molecule is polarized when it carries an induced dipole. With respect to molecules there are three types of dipoles:

 Permanent dipoles: These occur when two atoms in a molecule have substantially different electronegativity—one atom attracts electrons more than another becoming more negative, while the other atom becomes more positive.

 Instantaneous dipoles: These occur due to chance when electrons happen to be more concentrated in one place than another in a molecule, creating a temporary dipole.

 Induced dipoles occur when one molecule with a permanent dipole repels another molecule's electrons, "inducing" a dipole moment in that molecule. An induced dipole of any polarizable charge distribution is caused by an external electric field. This field may, for instance, originate from an ion or polar molecule in the vicinity.

The polarization of a dielectric material is a competition between torques due to the imposed electric field, which tends to align the molecules, and collisions, which tend to destroy the alignment.

The theory of Dielectric Spectroscopy gives us understanding that electromagnetic field can influence on different molecules and even cells at variety of frequencies that unique to each type of molecules or cells.

This gives us confidents that we would able to quantify majority of liquid (water, organic solvent and compounds, etc.) components and contaminants. We have to define a spectrum that will be unique to each component of liquid and to build a comprehensive math model in order to measure each individual component.

Answers to basic questions regarding the technology (IRT)

1) Ability to work with organic solvents and compounds

Based on the theory of the technology and series of experiments with dissolved salts, alkaline liquids, organic mater and cells give us confidence that technology will be applicable to monitor organic solvents and compounds.

The technology definitely could be use to monitor integral impedance of the media and can help to keep technological processes within limits.

2) Ability to differentiate and identify / measure / monitor different organic molecules.

Large organic molecules have distinctive molecular dipole momentum that tumbles at certain frequency. We anticipate that each kind of molecule will have few frequencies associated with permanent dipoles, and as well instantaneous and induced ones.

The set of frequencies for each kind of molecules is absolutely unique and could be identified and measured with number of resonating circuitries. The signal level of measuring circuitries depends on concentration.

3) Ability to work with different organic solutions in different chemical manufacturing processes.

During chemical manufacturing processes could vary: temperature, pressure, viscosity of the solvent and more. The monitoring of processes could be very complicated due to difficulties with calibration in different stages of a process. These would require extensive research

4) Ability to work with non plastic pipes (organic solvents corrode and dissolve plastics) such as stainless steel and iron.

Metal is shielding electro-magnetic propagation of resonating circuitries. The sensors must be wrapped or embrace on dielectric, such: plastics, glass, quartz, ceramic, etc.

5) Ability to monitor different and alternating manufacturing processes used for different products, taking place at the same facilities (for example: a fixed temperature gauge is used at the same point but is used to monitor different/ alternating processes and materials).

In order to achieve the best sensitivity our sensors set at frequencies at which measuring substance has the best possible response.

However, could be found frequency at which many different materials have response sufficient for measuring/monitoring. At least, integral parameter of the process could be monitored. But each process would require separated calibration.

6) Practical question given for demonstration:

Think of a chemical process taking place in a manufacturing tank - were several organic compounds are mixed and processed in the presence of organic solvents. Dynamic reactions and processes take place, the result being the formation of a new compound (which is the required end product):

Is it possible to monitor on line & continuously measure each component participating in the process (including the end product) and achieve, as a result, an optimized control over the processes and the whole complex?

See answers in 1), 2), 3) and 5). It’s matter of calibration. In general, the answer is “Yes”.

Following see the examples of contactless Impedance Resonance Technology (IRT) systems for monitoring and measuring of liquids’ composition.

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