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Innovative modification of fuel for diesel engines, and other thermodynamic devices that use diesel fuel (continued, Part Four - fuel mixture based on methanol)

2012-12-04
Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits

Recently, more and more attention by fuel and fuel mixtures pay to the possibility of using mixtures of methanol instead of ethanol
If the amount of natural resources used to produce methanol was rather limited, from the moment of the successful development of technologies for the extraction of shale gas, the situation changed
There was a fairly low-cost raw materials and, as often happens in such cases, there was technology for methanol production from shale gas
Now it makes sense to consider the properties of methanol, as a component of the fuel mixture
First, the well-known properties of methyl alcohol – methanol

Methanol , CH3OH, the simplest of fatty alcohols. Clear colorless poisonous liquid with a faint odor, sp. weight CC - 0.79648 with a boiling point 64,7 ° and melting temperature - 95 °. Miscible with water in all respects. Specific weight of aqueous solutions of methyl alcohol was studied Klasson and Norlin, Doroszewska and Christmas. Their tables used to determine the content of methanol in aqueous solutions by specific gravity. Methyl alcohol forms with acids esters, oxidation gives formic aldehyde (formaldehyde), formic acid and carbon dioxide, with a number of metal-alkoxides forms compounds, decomposing water into alcohol and a base. Also forms double compounds with some inorganic salts: CaCI2, LiCl, etc. Lights blednosinim flame (heating value of 5.365 kcal / kg). In nature, occurs in small amounts in plants either in the free state, or, more commonly, in the form of esters.

Limitations
• Methanol poison aluminum. Another problem is the use of aluminum carburetors and fuel injection systems in internal combustion engines. This applies mainly to the crude methanol containing significant amounts of impurities of formic acid and formaldehyde. Technically pure methanol containing water begins to react with aluminum at temperatures above 50 ° C, and with ordinary carbon steel does not react at all.
• hydrophilic. Methanol draws water that is causing the separation of mixtures of diesel fuel and methanol.
• Methanol, like ethanol, increases the capacity of plastic fumes for some plastics (eg density polyethylene). This feature increases the risk of increasing the methanol emissions of volatile organic compounds, which can lead to a decrease in the concentration of ozone and increased solar radiation.
• Reduced volatility in cold weather: engines running on pure methanol, may have trouble starting at temperatures below +10 ° C and have increased fuel consumption to reach operating temperature. This problem, however, is easily solved by adding methanol 10-25% gasoline.
The low level of impurities of methanol can be used in existing vehicles fueled with proper corrosion inhibitors. Sc. European fuel quality directive (European Fuel Quality Directive) allows the use of up to 3% methanol with an equal amount of additives in gasoline, used in Europe. Today, China uses more than one billion gallons of methanol as a transportation fuel in the low-level blends used in existing vehicles, as well as higher-mix in vehicles for use of methanol as a fuel.

In the application of methanol as a fuel should be noted that the volume and mass energy (calorific value) of methanol at 40-50% less than gasoline, but the heating of alcohol-air and gasoline fuel-air mixtures when burned in an engine differs slightly for the reason that high value of the heat of vaporization of methanol improves cylinder filling the engine and reduce its thermal stress, which increases the efficiency of combustion of alcohol-air mixture.
As a result of this increase in power output is increased by 10-15%. Racing engines running on methanol with a higher octane rating than gasoline are the compression ratio higher than 15:1, while in the ordinary spark-ignition internal combustion engine compression ratio for unleaded gasoline is usually not more than 11,5:1.
Methanol can be used as a classic internal combustion engines, and in special fuel cell to produce electricity.

Methanol is an important quality that the exhaust gases are 2-3 times less toxic compounds than with gasoline. However, the above-mentioned disadvantages and small resources of methanol near impossible to use it today as a standalone fuel.
So it is used as an additive to gasoline. Used in the experiments with a mixture of methanol from 5 to 30%. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases is reduced by 14-72%. Methanol-gasoline slightly reduces engine performance.
However, keep in mind that the addition of methanol, for example, in the amount of 15% increases the octane rating of the mixture from 88 to 95.8. With the appropriate alteration of the engine in order to increase the degree of compression on it, you can still save on fuel consumption.
As disadvantages of the fuel mixture as a disposition it to the bundle, especially in contact with a mixture of water and the temperature drops.
And here, the possibility of pre-homogenization of fuel mixtures containing methanol (this will be discussed further in the text)
Methanol is poisonous.
Methanol production is currently limited. But there is the assumption that in the short term, its production will increase from 2.1% in relation to the production of gasoline and 15%.
Particularly high hopes pinned on methanol in countries with large resources of plant biomass and as noted above, with large shale gas resources.
For example, in Brazil have now all the cars run on blends containing methanol kolichestve2 10%. There is an assumption that the proportion of methanol in gasoline in Brazil is continuously increasing and in the near future in this country will reach an average of 20%, and by 2020 year fuel by 75% will consist of methanol.
The improvement of technology and mass production should significantly reduce the cost of methanol, and expect that it will be cheaper than gasoline.

Dynamic homogenization of liquid hydrocarbon fuel blends, which is the basic component of diesel or gasoline, mixed with methanol

Mixing fuel from gasoline (to a lesser extent) or diesel and methanol is extremely difficult because of the large difference in the viscosity of the material
Dynamic homogenization fuel mixtures can make high-quality and homogeneous mixture of diesel fuel or gasoline and methanol for a second, directly in the pipeline and in any desired proportions
Dynamic homogenization in diesel engines that use as fuel mixture of diesel fuel and methanol, is mounted between the fuel pump and high pressure pump diesel engine
During the passage of the fuel mixture in which water is separated from the gasoline or diesel fuel through the system dynamic homogenization homogenization occurs in the flow of the level of turbulence, and then in high-pressure pump is the completion of the dynamic homogenization volume and the size factor in a three-dimensional coordinate system
In the process of homogenization of the water in the form of micro-droplets are homogeneously distributed in the volume of the hydrocarbon mixture of fuel and then said mixture is transformed into a micro-or nano-emulsion
According to the results of the test emulsion prepared using the Dynamic homogenization, the soot concentration in the exhaust gases is reduced by 97%, and the level and speed of implementation of heat is increased by at least 35%
For the installation of the Dynamic homogenization on the diesel engine does not require any additional elements of the original and the engine itself is not required to make any design changes

Complex dynamic homogenization of liquid hydrocarbon fuel blends, which is the basic component of heavy fuel oil

Mixing fuel from heavy fuel oil and methanol is extremely difficult because of the large difference in the viscosity of the material
Dynamic homogenization fuel mixtures can make high-quality and homogeneous mixture of heavy fuel oil and methanol for a second, directly in the pipeline and in any desired proportions
Dynamic homogenization in the heavy-duty diesel engines using as fuel a mixture of heavy fuel oil and methanol, is mounted between the fuel pump and high pressure pump motor (if applicable) If the high-pressure pump is not part of the engine, the system of dynamic set of homogenization on the fuel line after the fuel pump
During the passage of the fuel mixture which was separated from the water or heavy fuel oil or formed clumps of heavy oil through dynamic homogenization homogenization occurs in the flow of the level of turbulence, and then in the high pressure pump or the nozzle is the completion of the dynamic homogenization in volume and in size factor in a three-dimensional coordinate system
In the process of homogenization of the water in the form of micro-droplets are homogeneously distributed in the volume of the hydrocarbon mixture of fuel and then said mixture is transformed into a micro-or nano-emulsion
According to the results of the test emulsion prepared using the Dynamic homogenization, the soot concentration in the exhaust gases is reduced by 97%, and the level and speed of implementation of heat is increased by at least 35%
For the installation of the Dynamic homogenization on the engine, is used as fuel heavy fuel oil, requires no additional elements of the original and the engine itself is not required to make any design changes
Dynamic homogenization of hydrocarbon fuel blends core component of which is the oil

Mixing fuel from fuel oil and methanol is extremely difficult because of the large difference in the viscosity of the material and because of the heterogeneity of fuel oil
Dynamic homogenization fuel mixtures can make high-quality and homogeneous mixture of fuel oil and methanol for a second, directly in the pipeline and in any desired proportions
In the case of a particularly high level of heterogeneity of fuel oil, constructive simplicity of the system allows its use gradually to form a gradual (step) sequential circuit mixing fuel based on oil
Dynamic homogenization in large engines using as a fuel mixture of fuel oil and methanol, is mounted between the fuel pump and the subsequent element of the engine fuel system
During the passage of the fuel mixture in which water is separated from the oil, or in which the flow of fuel oil formed clumps and lumps through dynamic homogenization occurs in the flow of the level of turbulence, then the nozzle or in the injector is the completion of the dynamic homogenization in volume and in size factor in a three-dimensional coordinate system
In the process of homogenization of the water in the form of micro-droplets are homogeneously distributed in the volume of the hydrocarbon mixture of fuel and then said mixture is transformed into a micro-or nano-emulsion
According to the results of the test emulsion prepared using the Dynamic homogenization, the soot concentration in the exhaust gases is reduced by 97%, and the level and speed of implementation of heat is increased by at least 35%
For the installation of the Dynamic homogenization on the engines do not need any additional elements of the original and the engine itself is not required to make any design changes
Preparation of hydrocarbon fuel blends and emulsions in specialized refineries

At refineries system for dynamic homogenization of hydrocarbon liquids should include high-pressure pump operating on the principle of high pressure pump diesel engine
Said integrated system can be used as a blending component blended fuel pump or a recirculation system provides the fuel mixture in the tanks to store it
Installation of such systems can be made to use equipment without modifications or upgrades, but in this case, the system should include pumps for mixing in
One option of the Dynamic homogenization in refineries is the option to generate the fuel mixture when applying components of the fuel mix in transport tank;
Since cooking fuel mixture in the system of a split second, mixing feeding into a transport tank, allows the company does not have special containers to store fuel mixture

Preparation of hydrocarbon fuel blends at gas stations

At refueling system for dynamic homogenization of hydrocarbon liquids should include high-pressure pump operating on the principle of high pressure pump diesel engine
Said integrated system can be used as a blending component blended fuel pump or a recirculation system provides the fuel mixture in the tanks to store it
Installation of such systems can be made to use equipment without modifications or upgrades, but in this case, the system should include pumps for mixing in
One option of the Dynamic homogenization at gas stations is the option to generate the fuel mixture when applying components of the fuel mixture directly into the fuel tank of a car or other vehicle;
Since cooking fuel mixture in the system of a split second, mixing feeding the tank of a vehicle can not be in the company of special storage tanks for fuel mixture

Preparation of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures in the system dynamic homogenization, mounted directly in an internal combustion engine

In the event that a vehicle may be an additional tank for the second component of the fuel mixture, mixing fuel can lead Dynamic homogenization directly in the fuel line
The possibility of such an option tested in a production diesel engine, and the result of this test (produce fuel emulsion water in oil, emulsified diesel fuel that is plain tap water)
As a result of the use of an emulsion concentration of soot in the exhaust gas decreased by 97% (mixing ratios in the emulsion - 20% water, 80% diesel)

Installation of the system dynamic homogenization on the internal combustion engine in its manufacture in the trade

For the installation of the Dynamic homogenization for new production internal combustion engine does not require any new elements to the design of the engine
In the fuel pipeline after the fuel pump system is introduced, the output of which is attached to the pump start-up of high pressure or in his absence, to be put into the feature following the fuel pump

Installation of the system dynamic homogenization of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures and liquid hydrocarbon fuel to an internal combustion engine, which has been in operation

For the installation of the Dynamic homogenization repaired or modified internal combustion engine does not require any new elements to the design of the engine

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