Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits
Law of technical system
A necessary condition for the fundamental viability of a technical system is the availability and efficiency of the minimum core of the system.
Extremely controversial is the assertion regarding the minimum health
In the modern sense is no minimum performance - there is a sufficient performance and efficiency are not enough
In case of insufficient performance of at least one part or component of the system, its overall performance is inadequate and the system can not, under any circumstances, be an object of commercialization
The law of energy conductivity
A necessary condition for the fundamental viability of a technical system is through passage of energy to all parts of the system.
The above condition can be easily refuted by using an example of the objects of modern technology
For example take the recent installation of the laser diode module; For pass-through of energy to all parts of this module, it immediately fails
In this module, the main criteria of reliability and availability is precisely separated and isolated passage of energy in parts of the module, that is, the electric current must be isolated from the heat fluxes and energy in general should not have pass-through, but rather must be dissipated in specially selected structural elements of the module
Law harmonization rhythm parts of the system
A necessary condition for the fundamental viability of a technical system is to match rhythm (oscillation frequency, periodicity) of all parts.
This law and its necessary condition were important when any system had to have a through coordination of rhythm and timing
With the advent of processor technology the need for such coordination has disappeared as an opportunity to local consistency in any, even the most complex system
Processors to make the process of management and production flexibility and the most independent of the specific local conditions that occur in the components of the system
Thus the conclusion that the law of rhythm matching parts of the system has exhausted itself can be quite convincing
Law of increasing ideality of
The development of all systems go in the direction of increasing ideality.
Consider the history of the known to you (or you are interesting, previously unknown to) the biological, biomechanical, nature protection of inventions (eg, water treatment methods in the past, the traditional methods of soil remediation).
In the past, this was recommended by a rough plan of analysis:
- The emergence of a social need (now is the emergence or the initiation of market demand);
- The emergence of the first embodiment of the device (or method) - Now this is a fundamentally new method of designing the application of analytical tools of computer modeling, simulation, and simulation;
- Improvement of this option (here is not entirely clear why after the design and construction of prototypes and prototype system to begin its improvement - not easier and more efficient once design, manufacture and test the best option?)
- The transition to mass production - today the process is fundamentally different from those years, when the theory of inventive problem solving; Globalization has made significant changes in the process of preparing the mass production and processing equipment in general has changed so much that the concept of mass production to be disclosed again allowing for the and technical characteristic this most technological equipment, in addition, such processes such as the manufacture of sintered metal parts by radically changing the concept of preparing mass production;
- Tasks to be undertaken before and during the mass production - in fact today the principles of the organization of production in general and mass production in particular. after completion of the training and pilot operation in the process and in the process equipment, tools and accessories should not be issues;
- The output device to the real (or perceived) physical limit of efficiency - is now a device, apparatus or product should reach the physical limit of efficiency in the tests;
- Replacement of the new device, this recommendation does not make any sense, because if after all the stages of preparation of a need to replace another innovative product, you need to ask about the level and quality of the primary product innovation
Ideal final result (IFR) - to achieve the result (solution) without complicating the technical system with minimal resources (money, time, metal, clean water, etc.).
From the point of view of the environmental problems in the scheme RBIs fall all resource-saving, waste-free technologies.
How to formulate the ideal final result? You must determine the main useful function of a technical system, that is, to answer the question "why create the device"?
For example, a mobile phone was created to talk in the absence of a fixed line.
Therefore, the ideal end result is the ability to instantly communicate with anyone anywhere in the world (some of this is provided by the Internet).
IFR must formulate that:
1) Identify the purpose, direction, decision;
2) get rid of the blanks deliberately finding solutions;
3) ensure the quality of future decisions.
The concept is the concept of IFR ideal technical system - a system that does not exist, and its function is executed. Naturally, this is not always possible to do. IFR is not always attainable, for he and RBIs. But you can increase the so-called ideal technical system - the ratio of useful features to the cost of running it.
It is crucial to understand - who defines the criteria for the ideal outcome of the innovation system - the market, the developer, manufacturer or inventor only
If the inventor does not include criteria for an ideal outcome, developed and placed on the system by all parties involved in the innovation process, it is likely that his conception of the ideal outcome would be wrong, and even achieve such a result would not make the system attractive to potential users
The law of uneven development of parts of the system
Parts of the system development has been uneven. The more complex the system, the unevenness of development of its parts.
For what such a law could be applied in a modern design, it is necessary to adapt it to modern processor technology and a modern set of elements and components
Generally, if there is a development of the system, all components are selected in such a way that would eliminate the maximum imbalance between
This means that the system and all of its elements have to respond to the same signals to give homogeneous feedback signals and must use the same sensors and sensor accuracy, and speed of reaction to the equivalent signals
If the system has movable elements, their principle of movement, the effort spent on the movement must be equivalent in all active components
In the case of these rules can be created harmonious system to the expected results of the
But then, if you go back to the language of the law, it is seen that the invention to the uneven development of the components can not be harmonious and therefore can not be a popular product, and that is what today is the goal of any innovation
The law of transition to supersystem
Having exhausted the possibilities of development, the system turns into a super-system as one of the parts. In this case, further development is at the level supersystem.
Today it is not so
Any active working and harmonious system is composed of homogeneous components balanced, and when the system is close to the point where further opportunities for development, modernization and optimization of the exhaustion, the best option is to replace the uniform component base to a more modern and more efficient components
The so-called horizontal integration of new elements broadens and deepens the potential for further development of the system and practice and is a transition to supersystem
Escalating modified and modernized in the active component of meta from a commercial point of view is not always necessary, since the system is a separate product with laws unique to her placing on the market, and the super-system it's possible no one wants
Thus the system in the super-system can kill the commercial potential of the system
The law of transition from macro to micro-level
Development of working bodies are first at the macro, and then at the micro level.
In modern systems generally are more exhaust systems and components at the micro level
The macro level is defined concept, and even today - a computer model, and then comes the filling process at the micro voids
Component manufacturers, as a rule in the information materials and catalogs give ready digital models that designers can implement without training in a model system at the macro level
That is to say that the formation of the modern design of the system at the macro level is after the formation of the system components at the micro level
The law increases the degree of su-field
Development of technical systems is to increase the number of real-field relationships.
And yet, again, the emergence of processor technology and particularly efficient programmable processors, giving you the system of connections and relationships between the components and parts of the system more independent
Thus there is no need to create complex hierarchy relationships in which to ensure efficiency and reliability needed multiple overlapping schematic solutions
At the same time there was a duplication of the best critical limit function expansion, because the increase in the number of connections and components necessarily lead to a substantial reduction in the reliability of the system
In fact, today is especially important not to waste solution to perfection, and his interpretation of the commercial, which is harmoniously integrated into all aspects of technology and marketing
Time has passed and now lone inventors usually invent entire creative teams that need various specialists, and, very important that the group were generators of ideas, ideas interpreters and integrators of ideas into a coherent functional harmonious system
Again, very rare to find a case where these professionals are within the same industrial or research company
And as such a perfect combination of practically does not exist, of course needs a selective search of the necessary specialists
Scientists at Stanford University have created an algorithm that is able to automatically allocate in social relations by "circles" of colleagues, family or friends. Preprint of access to the archives of Cornell University, a brief retelling the content blog Technology Review.
Algorithm is based on analysis of data in the social profile of the people with whom the user communicates.
They singled out the information on gender, age, education, and other data. Then, a search for connections between the user and friends in their social graph based on the immediate environment.
The algorithm analyzes the clusters within the social graph and the user selects a group friends, united by some common parameter - colleagues, friends, classmates or family members.
The authors note that a key feature of the program is the possibility of overlapping circles, without which the creation of meaningful groups is impossible.
To test the applicability of its algorithm authors resorted to ten volunteers.
First, they offered themselves to group your contacts in the network Facebook (just over 4 thousand) based on any desired criteria, then their profiles are automatically analyzed by the program.
It was found that on average, each of the volunteers stood out among his contacts 19 groups to 22 people, while the program could be found in the social graph by no more than 10 groups.
However, according to the authors, the new algorithm does its job much better than all known analogues.
Computer social networking as a testing ground for the application of the methods of analysis of graph theory attracted the attention of mathematicians since its appearance.
Recently, scientists have created an algorithm that can identify the social network Facebook's most influential people, and another group of scientists to analyze the quality of ideal internet meme.
So it is quite possible that soon partners on innovative projects will be selectively evaluated by means of algorithms implemented in the social networks and this selection will be more important and effective than any other purely technological solutions