Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits
Shale gas is largely changed our understanding of the place and role of natural gas in the energy mix of any developed country
Now the number of natural gas produced can think of new versions of its effective application
Initially, the new situation in the market of natural gas:
... The collapse of natural gas prices in the U.S. and as a result, will help companies reduce costs the American economy more productive and create 2.5-5 million jobs by 2020. This was reported in the study of the Boston Consulting Group (Boston Consulting Group, BCG).
BCG notes that in the near future due to shale gas fuel costs in the U.S. is 50-70 percent lower than in Europe or Japan. In April this year, the price of gas in the U.S. reached a 10-year low - a little over $ 71 per thousand cubic meters. After that, the producers reduced production and the cost of fuel began to grow. According to various forecasts, gas prices in the U.S. could reach 120-140 dollars per thousand cubic meters. For comparison, "Gazprom" sells fuel abroad for 300-450 dollars per thousand cubic meters.
In addition to cheap energy, increased production will contribute to the decline in labor costs. According to the forecast BCG, this item of expenditure in the U.S. in the foreseeable future will be 20-45 per cent lower than the average rate in other developed economies. Labour costs BCG calculated the adjusted labor productivity, which, according to the group in the U.S. is much higher. Positive impact on output growth and job creation will have a tendency to return capacity from other countries back to the U.S..
As a result, experts believe the group for 2015, production costs will be lower in the U.S. than in the UK by 8 percent in Germany and France - 15 percent, in Japan - by 21 percent and in Italy - by 23 percent. By 2020, according to BCG, the U.S. will be able to intercept the four largest European countries 2-4 per cent of the export market, and Japan - 3-7 percent. This will bring the country an additional 90 billion dollars a year. The benefits of export growth around the world is estimated at $ 130 billion annually.
The boom in shale gas production in the U.S. is extremely negative impact on the country's nuclear power industry. According to The Wall Street Journal, in the last few years there have been plans to build 29 new nuclear reactors by 15 companies, but of the projects embarked on only two.
Construction of power plants based on coal, the country is also significantly reduced. The reason was the drop in gas prices, associated with the growth in production of the fuel. While the launch facilities for the production of one kilowatt of electricity to gas costs 978 dollars for nuclear power plants, the figure is 5339 dollars.
The government forecasts that the U.S., by 2035 the country will be an additional production capacity of 222 gigawatts of electricity. This will increase its total capacity by 20 percent. However, about 58 percent of the growth will be achieved is through the introduction of new stations operating on gas. To renewable energy sources will have 31 percent, eight percent - on coal plants and four more - at the plant.
Gas prices in the U.S. are kept at the minimum rates for the last ten years. By the end of 2011 domestic gas market in the U.S., you could buy three times cheaper than in Europe, and six times cheaper than in Japan. Currently, the average price of production of megawatts of electricity per hour with gas in the country is about 64 dollars.
"Shale boom" started in the U.S. in the second half of the 2000s. By the beginning of the 2010s the country entered the gas self-sufficient economy, and in 2009, the U.S. overtook Russia for the production of fuel, which has been a leader in this industry.
The development of shale gas will allow the United States to create 870,000 jobs over the next four years. It is reported by Bloomberg, citing a study IHS Global Insight. In addition, gas production will allow the country to increase annual GDP by 2015 to 118 billion dollars.
By 2036 the contribution of the industry for the extraction of shale gas in the annual U.S. GDP will be 231 billion dollars. In 2010, the figure was about 70 billion. Currently, the gross domestic product is more than 14 trillion dollars.
The study also noted that due to tax charges shale gas will fill up the budgets of different levels at 933 billion dollars over the next twenty five years.
The rapid growth of shale gas production in the U.S. in the second half of the 2000s enabled the Americans to enter the economic self-gas. As a result, America is the world largest importer of fuel has become an exporter. Currently, 34 percent of the U.S. natural gas market is shale gas.
In the U.S., a strong movement of shale gas opponents who believe that this industry harms the environment. Thus, only in Pennsylvania, gas production is from four thousand wells. Currently, the U.S. authorities are considering the start of drilling near New York City.
In 2009, the U.S. overtook Russia in gas production has traditionally been a leader in this market. In 2011, Russia again cede America first gas production. For the first nine months of 2011, natural gas production in Russia totaled 490.5 billion cubic meters, while in the United States - 505.4 billion. Besides the U.S., Russia also loses some of the export market in Europe: U.S. to send in excess of "blue fuel".
The largest U.S. oil and gas corporations, including ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips and Encana, reduced gas production due to low fuel prices. According to The Wall Street Journal, in the first quarter of this year, ExxonMobil, for example, has reduced production volumes by 1.8 percent, and Encana - five percent.
Earlier, the Ministry of Energy reported that in February, the reduction in gas production in the country was the highest for the year and amounted to 0.6 percent.
In early April, the price of natural gas in the U.S. fell to a minimum of ten years. On the Stock Exchange in New York, one thousand cubic feet of gas was worth less than two dollars (70.3 dollars per thousand cubic meters). This was aided by the warm weather and excess supply in the market thanks to the boom in shale gas production.
In the second half of April, gas prices began to rise again, from April 18 to May 2, they have risen by 18 percent. May 2, as noted by Reuters, in the course of trading on the NYMEX natural gas futures price for delivery next month fell by nearly five per cent, but on the session will still exceed two dollars and amounted to 2.253 dollars.
In March, the business media reported that cheap gas is a negative impact on the development of atomic Energy. Of the planned construction of 29 new nuclear reactors contractors began to build only 2.
There are several modern and innovative solutions to even the low price of this energy to further increase the impact of its use and significantly reduce the harmful effects on the environment
First of all, this can be attributed to gaseous fuel composites
The main advantage is the ability to use them to obtain a stable flame with a minimum amount of air
This fact (by the way officially confirmed by the results of the leading companies in the world fuel) saves at least 25% of the air necessary for combustion, which also reduces exhaust emissions by 25% in the final calculation of approximately 25% more efficient thermodynamic devices, are used as fueled by natural gas
United States Patent Application 20110126462
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. June 2, 2011
Device for Producing a Gaseous Fuel Composite and System of Production Thereof
The invention relates to a gaseous fuel composite, a device for producing the gaseous fuel composite, and subcomponents used as part of the device for producing the gaseous fuel composite, and more specifically, to a gaseous composite made of a gas fuel such as natural gas and its oxidant such as air for burning as part of different systems such as fuel burners, combustion chambers, and the like. The device includes several vortex generators each with a curved aerodynamic channel amplifier to create a stream of air to aerate the gas as successive stages using both upward and rotational kinetic energy. Further, a vortex generator may have an axial channel with a conical shape or use different curved channel amplifiers to further create the gaseous fuel composite.
How was the creation of the compressed fuel mixture based on diesel fuel can significantly improve the efficiency of thermodynamic devices
As an example, bring one of the inventions of this area:
United States Patent Application 20100193445
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. August 5, 2010
FOAMING OF LIQUIDS
Methods and systems for processing of liquids using compressed gases or compressed air are disclosed. In addition, methods and systems for mixing of liquids are disclosed.