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Adaptation of Theory and Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving and commercialization, created on their basis inventions, in small and medium-sized businesses in the U.S. (Part One)

2012-09-04
Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits, Jaroslav Vashchuk

Admittedly, most interesting from the point of view of the commercial effect of inventions created by small and medium-sized enterprises
With all the flexibility of the approach in these companies to innovate, the lack of available funds to these enterprises leads to the fact that even the most interesting ideas can be brought to market
Nevertheless, there is a lot of administrative mechanisms to connect the abilities of small and medium sized companies and government agencies to ensure that funds would concentrate and bring the product to market and
About the SME sector U.S.
According to U.S. law, the category of small and medium enterprises are business entities, employing up to 500 people. All small and medium enterprises in the United States are divided into 3 categories:
1. Micro enterprises - companies with the number of employees up to 20 people;
2. Small businesses - from 20 to 100 people;
3. Medium-sized enterprises - from 100 to 499 people.
4. In addition, some isolated companies that use
of employees and those where the owner of the company does without bringing hired personnel.
Small and medium-sized businesses in the United States began its development in the era of the Great Depression, so his percentage is quite high. In the U.S. today, there are about 7 million enterprises with fewer than 500 employees, of whom 6 million enterprises employing less than 20 people in each. In addition, the U.S. has 18.3 million individual non-farm enterprises.
Small and medium enterprises in the United States is represented in various areas (in the production of trade, finance, social services, as well as in innovation). Today in the United States two-thirds of jobs created institutions and companies belonging to the category of small and medium businesses.
The contribution of small and medium enterprises in the development of science and the development of new products, most of the discoveries and inventions in the United States accounts for the small and medium-sized specialized firms. For example, the development of production of aircraft, helicopters, air conditioners, personal computers, and many other types of products is carried out by small and medium enterprises.
State support for small and medium businesses in the U.S.. The principles and philosophy of supporting small and medium-sized businesses in the United States was formed in 1953., When was the Administration for small businesses in the U.S. (SBA, US Small Business Administration), which protects the interests of small and medium business in government. SBA has the responsibility to provide entrepreneurs financial and advisory support, assist in securing government contracts and contracts with large enterprises. Representation of the organization are in all the major cities, which allows you to apply policies to support small businesses in all states, not just the main economic centers of the United States.
SBA developed a directory sizing of small businesses. The basis of the standards of ethics includes the following criteria: the industry sector, the average annual income for a certain time (depending on the industry - for the last 12 calendar months, the three financial years, and etc), and in some areas - the average employment, the average number of clients and others. In addition, there are exceptions. For example, the company is small in the retail trade, if the average annual income of the company for the last three fiscal years not to exceed $ 5 million., With about 11 activities are exceptions to the rule, in agriculture the average annual income of a small business for the last three financial years not exceed 500 thousand. except for the production of cattle.
SBA Department for Standardization, in accordance with the industrial classification system defines the criteria for inclusion to the small business, which vary by industry. As an example, for wholesale and industrial production, this will be the number of employees (respectively to 100 and 500, in the industry, in some cases - up to 1.5 million).
Capable of providing and guaranteeing loans and venture capital instruments worth more than $ 45 billion in addition to loans for emergency disaster of $ 5 billion, SBA is the largest financial support for small and medium businesses.
The main objectives of SBA are:
• assistance in obtaining credit, and loan guarantees for businesses;
• Direct subsidies and loans to small and medium-sized businesses at the expense of its own budget;
• Technical and Information Services;
• maintenance and development of a competitive environment.
At this point, the program loan guarantee, SBA may guarantee the repayment by the state 90% of outstanding debt. This provides for the extension of credit issuing bank loans for up to five years, and in the provision of direct loans - up to 15 years.
A special place is occupied by the program of financial assistance to small and medium enterprises in case of emergency (natural disasters, social unrest, acts of terrorism) and the program of state guarantees of leases and insurance of construction contracts undertaken by small businesses.
On small and medium-sized businesses in the United States are subject to special tax benefits, such as "bonus the first year", when the tax is paid not with the whole, and with half of the taxable amount. Reduction of the absolute and relative size of the federal taxes contributes to the development of small businesses, promoting small businesses, strengthening their position in the economy and, therefore, increasing the number of new jobs.
SBA operates a number of programs, each of which has a specific purpose, segment actions, customers, conditions of participation. Every year there is a process of renovation and development of both existing and creation of new directions. The most traditional and important being - supporting business women and minorities, the development of export-oriented industries, to assist in the research work, the provision of services of a lawyer, etc.
There are the two largest programs AMB - "7a" (traditional lending and proven small business development program) and "504" (for further development and modernization of existing small businesses).
The purpose of the "7a" - guarantees to small entrepreneurs, for whatever reason, are unable to obtain it in the usual way when accessing the lender (the bank). Depending on the purpose, date and amount of the loan guarantee is offered by 75% of the loan amount to no more than 750 thousand share. U.S., 80% for the sum of 100 thousand dollars, up to 10 years for working capital and up to 25 years on the principal of, interest rate should not exceed 2.75 points the loan.
The purpose of the "504" - help in the expansion and modernization of existing small businesses. Obtaining relevant information about the company, the program "504" provides long-term loan with a fixed rate financing for the purchase of real estate, equipment, and technologies. SBA provides a guarantee for 40% of the loan, the maximum amount of the guarantee shall not exceed $ 1 million.
SBA budget for 2011 is 994 million is approximately 72% of these funds are earmarked for lending under the "7a", 19.6% to finance the program "504." In this case, the main cost will be at the cost of services, and assistance in the acquisition of equipment, the implementation of the construction at the lowest prices. Funding for small businesses to set up joint investment of several companies, is 7.2% of the budget. On micro-credit, which is often not profitable, given to 0.5% of the budget.
The role of municipalities and states no less significant. Vivid evidence of activity g.Sietla pc. Washington. Their clever policy for small business in Seattle from a provincial town into one of the centers of the developed countries. Administration g.Sietla a number of projects, the most modern and advanced of which is a set of programs under the title "A strong decision in favor of the new century" (P owerful Solution for a New Century). The initiators of the project are a number of business and administration of Seattle, as well as some non-governmental organizations. The idea is the concept of the need of market processes, support for the aspirations of people to work and earn money to support the development of economically unsustainable enterprises.
The project administration g.Sietl decided to open three programs - "Ready to earn» (Ready to Earn), «Business Support Centre and the development of lending companies» (The Business Assistance Centre and Development Lending Company) and "Community Development Company of Seattle" (The Seattle Community Development Partnership).
The "Ready to earn." The object of the program are low-income. Other than those of the city treasury, in this voluntary program involving investments of major companies based in Seattle, as «Microsoft», «Boeing», «Medina Foundation», etc
The "Center for Business Support and Development lending companies." The object is to support the working-age population that does not have enough experience, not satisfied with their present situation (income, type of work, etc.) and you want to change the situation. The purpose of this program - to unite and coordinate the efforts of public and private organizations to support the development of small businesses primarily in low profit , underdeveloped regions of the city through the organization, formation, and credit services small businesses during the creation and development of their activities.
The "Community Development Company of Seattle." The program, founded jointly by corporations and the state, providing assistance to those who are willing and able to build houses, but has no money and has the means, more or less adequate, but need consulting services. Thus, this program allows you to create jobs, provide new services, expand the tax base and receive funds for new or investment.

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