Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits, Jaroslav Vashchuk
In general, despite the impact of the global financial crisis, the U.S. government continues to strengthen measures to support small and medium businesses. Thus, in September 2010. U.S. President Barack Obama signed a law "On the support of small and medium enterprises," the study of the provisions of which may also be of value. The law provides for the allocation of U.S. $ 30 billion from a specially created government fund for small business loans. In addition to the expansion in lending, the new law provides tax cuts for businesses, both small and large businesses, and expanding opportunities for small businesses in the area of recruitment, stimulating the creation of new jobs.
In addition, the law provides for an increase in funding from local banks for enhancing the lending business, as well as lower interest rates on loans to small and medium enterprises and private entrepreneurs. The bill also provides for the expansion of tax credits and partial exemptions for certain groups of entrepreneurs from income taxes (details of the law can be found at http :/ / www. Govtrack. Us / congress / bill. Xpd? Bi 1 I = h 111.5297).
And small and medium business is supported by the joint-stock commercial organizations. State Commission of the U.S. Small Business Administration, which has 68 local offices across the country, helping small businesses by guaranteeing their loans and promoting staff development. Small and medium business support as the National Association of Independent Business, which includes more than 500 thousand small and medium-sized enterprise.
The activities of the U.S. Small Business Administration and the regional business development center
U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) - an independent federal agency in the government, to the President. Appointed as head of SBA by the president with the mandatory approval by the U.S. Congress. Budget and funding SBA also approved by Congress. Thus, the SBA has a high status in the structure of government and public life of the U.S.
SBA, established in 1953, the law on small businesses, is the largest organization providing financial assistance to small business (MT) through lending, loan guarantees and venture capital instruments
SBA budget for 2011 is 997 million financial resources to support small business, amounted to no less than 500 thousand dollars for one state, depending on the population and the number of small businesses. The main objective of AMB - to protect the interests of small businesses, to provide them with support and assistance, provide consulting services, preserve free enterprise on a competitive basis, to support and strengthen the economy of the country as a whole, as well as assist people in overcoming the economic impact of disasters.
There are four software features SBA
• Providing access to capital (finance companies) SBA provides many options for financing the MP, from microcredit to meet the needs of most small to large loans and investments in the share of equity participation;
• Development of business through information services, technical assistance and training. SBA provides individual counseling MP, as a personal meeting with the experts, and through the Internet, as well as low-cost training programs for entrepreneurs and businesses in more than 1,800 geographic locations in the U.S.;
• Promotion of MP in contracts with the government (federal procurement of goods, works and services). The U.S. government is the world's largest buyer of goods and services. Each year, the federal government makes purchases worth about 200 billion dollars in accordance with the MP, AMB with other federal departments and agencies helps MP a profit of about 23% of the federal budget allocated for the procurement of goods, works and services Contracts with government contractor. SBA also tells MPs the opportunity for government contracts as subcontractors, conducting outreach with relevant programs and training;
• Protection of the interests of the MP. Established in 1978. in the structure of SBA Division advocacy MP considering laws approved by Congress and represents the interests of MP in the hearings. The Division also evaluates the effect on the activities of the MP or that legislation. Also in the Department conduct research on a wide range of issues related to the MP and the price situation of small business. General Counsel of the Department appoints U.S. President.
In determining enterprises categorized MP SBA the following criteria:
• The scope of "wholesale": no more than 100 employees;
• «Retail and service sector": the average sales for three years, should not exceed 4-30 million per year;
• «Industrial production": no more than 500 employees (in some cases up to 1500),
• «Building": the average sales for three years, should not exceed 12 to $ 28.5 million a year.
In all states of the country SBA has regional offices that interact with the Enterprise Development Center (EDC). CRP are AMB with universities (sometimes with the administration of the state).
SBA provides 50% of funding for e-PCR, ie from the federal budget. The remaining 50% is covered by the host country from any one of the following sources: own funds of the University, the state budget, private sponsors and patrons. The receiver can provide funding and material resources (facilities, equipment, machinery, etc.).
Typically, PCR is created on the basis of one of the state universities, at least - with state governments. CRP are almost all cities and counties Definition universities as partners has advantages related to the fact that they are independent from the state government, that is, change of governors does not affect the activity of CRP.
The main criterion for the selection of suitable universities is the coverage of its activities in the state, that is, presence of a partner network: colleges, branches, representative offices, etc. In addition, the university has to prove their competence, ie have qualified personnel, physical facilities, teaching, research, etc.
Universities are accredited by the SBA, and then participate in the SBA program to support small businesses through a network of PCR. When universities have official (usually rector) leading on this aspect of the University, and he is accountable to the entire network of EDC staff. Such an employee of the University is responsible for the organization, management, staffing, scheduling and allocation of funds CRR.
Term of accreditation of the University for 4 years. Partner universities SBA can attract other universities to work on networking PCR.
CRP in the activity reports to selected universities, which, in turn, is accountable to the AMB. Reports on progress, costs and results of operations are reduced and made available to the University of AMB. There, with the help of special software, reduced reports of regional networks PCR is determined by their ranking, and the outcome of each center.
SBA will report on progress to Congress. In case of violations of a network of PCR performed more detailed inspection by independent experts. If confirmed by the fact of financial irregularities, is discussed under the relevant legislation.
Thus, CRP is a network of civil society organizations, which includes the AMB, universities, and (in some cases), chambers of commerce, state and local government, NGOs and private businesses. In the U.S. there are more than 1,000 PCR.
In general, the activities of the network CRP aims to support small businesses and includes training, consulting, technical assistance, assistance in finding funding sources, preparation of documents for participation in public procurement, and the identification and resolution of common problems of small business in the region.
CRR does not receive direct revenues and profits, and their activity is aimed at achieving results in the form of indirect taxes on the receipt of a small business and job creation.
Low income receive from EDC training and seminars for entrepreneurs. The proceeds are used for the services of faculty and rent. Attracted by the teachers and counselors CRR should definitely have experience own business.
The main emphasis in the CRR make teaching people skills of entrepreneurship and business, sources of financing and advisory services to enhance existing business. Services provided by PCR can be divided into seven main directions:
1. Training and consulting in the field of public business. CRR gaining a group of people who want to start their own business or business, give them a standard business plan, train the necessary procedures for starting a business, students make payments and conduct a feasibility study of the business project;
2. Assistance in obtaining data for market research, economic forecasts, market trends, markets and suppliers;
3. Assistance in the preparation of documents for participation in tenders for public procurement, training certificates and accreditation passes in the list of participants in the implementation of public contracts;
4. Facilitate access to full participation in the government to support small businesses;
5. Assistance in finding sources of funding;
6. Assistance with the preparation and presentation of applications for financial assistance and funding provided by financial and credit institutions;
7. Business support: ongoing consultations, seminars and trainings on topics of interest. It should be noted that the PCR does not provide accounting and legal services.
If we talk about the impact of the CRR, the SBA convinced of their high efficiency. According to the statistical monitoring by SBA, $ 1 investment in CRR profitable as revenue from operations in the amount of MP from 2 to 19-dollars, depending on the state. In addition, five of the small businesses that have received training and consulting in the PCR, four of them keep their business in the first 5 years, whereas, according to SBA statistics, of the 5 small business, starting a business on their own, only one can survive for at least 5 years.
In subsequent articles we will focus on the features of the application of TRIZ and ARIZ in small and medium enterprises