Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits
There are several options and ways of development of thermodynamic systems, which may allow to drastically reduce pollution
One way - it's better on-farm burning fuel mixtures, which would reduce the emission of harmful combustion products of incomplete combustion
The second way - to improve the quality of fuel and thus increase the level of cleanliness of combustion processes, and thus, the consistency of the restrictive norms of modern environmental standards
Next, from the publications on this subject, it is clear that following only one of these options does not give the desired and expected results
Upgrade path refining industry to be able to produce fuel, low-pollution, at first sight one stroke solve environmental problems, but this way is quite expensive and its implementation requires a significant investment of time
The status of this issue easily follow the example of Russia
August 17 business media reported that Russian oil companies once again did not wait too long to upgrade their production. Business is forced to ask the government to postpone the introduction of new environmental standards by which Russia lags behind Europe for more than six years.
It is possible that the removal of the country from the "dirty" fuels and vehicles will be delayed again.
The need for common European environmental standards, which would limit emissions vehicles in Europe have started talking in the middle of the last century.
In 1958, in Geneva, adopted more than 100 documents - their goal was to protect the environment from the adverse effects of traffic.
Countries adhering to the rules, had to use a common environmental standards for certification of vehicles. In 1990, after the final collapse of the socialist bloc, the formation of common European environmental standards has accelerated.
In 1992, for Europe has set the standard "Euro-1", which regulated the content in the exhaust gases of vehicles pollutants, particularly carbon and nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter.
In 1995, the old standard came "Euro-2", to tighten requirements for the content of hydrocarbons is almost three times. Standard "Euro-3", which is introduced into Europe in 1999, will reduce emissions by 30-40 percent, and a 2005 "Euro-4" - a further 65-70 per cent.
At present, the EU operates more strict "Euro-5", introduced in 27 countries in the EU from 1 January 2009.
It would reduce emissions of soot and nitrogen oxides petrol cars by 25 percent.
Diesel cars had to reduce soot emissions by 80 percent and nitrogen oxides - 20. For 2015 in Europe is planned transition to a new "Euro-6." Among other things, the standard would limit emissions of hydrocarbon content in 130 grams per kilometer - the old "Euro" did not contain such a rule.
Countries that have committed themselves to the "Euro" shall pass to the domestic market only cars that meets this standard. This applies to both imported and domestically produced cars.
Moreover, since the harmful emissions depend not only on the car itself, but also on fuel, sales should only those brands of gasoline and diesel fuel, which comply with the "Euro". In this regard, as the car manufacturers and fuel had to upgrade their plants.
Following its EU environmental standards have started to enter many countries. One of the first was the United States and Japan - but they are the requirements are somewhat different from the "Euro".
Most of the differences relate to methods of testing vehicles for environmental certificates (especially the intensity of the engine). This is due to the fact that due to local differences in road cars in Japan, U.S. and Europe are exploited in different ways (for example, usually go at different speeds).
However, available in the U.S. and Japan machines comply with environmental standards "Euro". In the United States similar to the "Euro-4" provisions were introduced in 2004 (a year before the EU).
In Japan, though, it was late - in 2011. In South Korea, the standard "Euro-4" was introduced in 2006. "Euro-3" is valid in China (since 2008) and in India (since 2010). It should be noted that the introduction of the country that some standards euro means that local companies will not make cars that are suitable for more demanding, but they can not produce a "less green" cars.
Russia began the struggle for environmental gasoline and cars much later in Europe. Standard "Euro-2" was introduced and started to be considered when obtaining certificates for vehicles and gasoline only in 2006 - 11 years later than in the EU. Environmental standard "Euro-3" was introduced in Russia in 2008.
Naturally, such an attempt to catch up with Europe, "Leap" created a lot of difficulties refiners and manufacturers of cars. At the time, automakers have achieved change the timing of administration standard "Euro-4".
At first it was planned to apply consistently in 2010, then moved to the introduction of the standard in 2012. Recently time again moved - "Euro-4" will be introduced in Russia only in 2014. While import to Russia can only cars already subject "Euro-4".
In some cases, the automakers have decided that it is easier to remove the outdated pipelines than to invest in their modernization. In turn, some models were improvements after just unprofitable.
That is why in 2008, was discontinued legendary "Oka", which produces the WHA. However, cars that do not meet the "Euro-2" is not withdrawn from circulation. As a result, even by 2010, more than half of domestic cars did not meet even the standards "Euro-2".
According to some models of the domestic producers have achieved higher standards than set by the government. For example, export cars "AvtoVAZ" meet standards "Euro-4" in 2006. Currently, models such as the Lada 4x4, Lada Kalina and Lada Priora (that is, export models) correspond to the "Euro-5". At "GAS" RBC said that for some items are ready to let even a "Euro-6."
In turn, manufacturers of fuel is clearly delaying the transition to European standards.
Initially it was planned that improve the quality of gasoline will not be much to keep up with the transition to a more environmentally friendly cars. However, due to the fact that the oil companies did not have time time to upgrade its refinery, the period of transition to the "less dirty" fuel is constantly shifting.
Power lies with the producers of gasoline agreements under which the first "prolonging life" inferior grades of fuel, and the second - upgrade refineries.
According to the last such agreement, signed in October 2011, the turnover of fuel, "Euro-2" in the country is allowed up to 2013, "Euro-3" - 2015, "Euro-4" - 2016.
Accordingly, in 2016, Russia should completely switch to the "Euro-5".
August 17 "Kommersant", citing unnamed sources in federal agencies wrote that the producers of gasoline applied to the government to once again "move" time-out of gasoline class "Euro-2".
According to the publication, the authorities asked the country's 16 largest oil companies, including the "Rosneft", TNK-BP, "Gazprom oil", "Gazprom", "Lukoil", "Bashneft" and SC "Alliance". The "Surgutneftegaz" already agreed postponement. It is possible that the government will meet again in the oil-and once again postpone the abandonment of the "Euro-2".
Speaking about the reasons for the introduction in Russia of European environmental standards constantly delayed, the business media often point to lack of funds from oil companies.
The transition to the new standards will not bring additional revenue oil companies, at the same time, it is fairly expensive undertaking.
In addition, the profitability of oil refining in Russia is not very high and far behind the production and export of hydrocarbons.
But, most of all, the most important reason is the loss of time - if Europe began to introduce environmental regulations in the middle of the last century, the Russian thought about it only in the mid-2000s.
Now let's see what this looks like an example of only one company in Russia
Investments of "Rosneft" to 2020 will amount to 124 billion dollars (3.646 trillion rubles). From 2012 to 2016 investment should reach $ 70 billion, even 54 billion will be invested from 2016 to 2020-th.
Writes "RBC daily", called for the development strategy of the company, which could see the edition.
According to the document, by 2030, "Rosneft" is going to become a global energy company, which will have 4.5 strategic partners abroad. "Rosneft" is also planning to participate in projects abroad.
The capitalization of the company for 18 years to double. In addition to investment, this effect is expected to reach by the new, more effective model of governance.
The money will be invested in the growth of oil and gas production, modernization and development of the petrochemical refining, improving the efficiency of crude oil and petroleum products.
The document says that by 2020, the company's production should reach 170-180 million tons (of which about 25 percent will come from gas), and by 2030 - 200 million tons.
"Rosneft" is the largest oil company in Russia and is the first in the world in terms of proven reserves. The main shareholder of "Rosneft" (owns 76.16 per cent of the securities) is the state "Rosneftegaz."
According to PFC Energy, "Rosneft" is the 17 largest in the world by market capitalization, which is 78 billion dollars.
And yet, as has been mentioned in publications on this topic on the site Yaroslav Vashchuk, there exist optimal solutions on production technology of fuel compositions, fuel composites and fuel emulsions that are disproportionately at lower cost can almost solve all environmental problems
Here are some examples of innovative solutions:
United States Patent Application 20120085428
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. April 12, 2012
EMULSION, APPARATUS, SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DYNAMIC PREPARATION
The invention relates to a fluid composite, a device for producing the fluid composite, and a system for producing an aerated fluid composite therewith, and more specifically a fluid composite made of a fuel and its oxidant for burning as part of different systems such as fuel burners or combustion chambers and the like. The invention also relates to an emulsion, an apparatus for producing an emulsion, a system for producing an emulsion with the apparatus for producing the emulsion, a method for producing a dynamic preparation with the emulsion, and more specifically to a new type of a stable liquid / liquid emulsion in the field of colloidal chemistry, such as a water / fuel or fuel / fuel emulsion for all spheres of industry.
United States Patent Application 20110126462
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. June 2, 2011
Device for Producing a Gaseous Fuel Composite and System of Production Thereof
The invention relates to a gaseous fuel composite, a device for producing the gaseous fuel composite, and subcomponents used as part of the device for producing the gaseous fuel composite, and more specifically, to a gaseous composite made of a gas fuel such as natural gas and its oxidant such as air for burning as part of different systems such as fuel burners, combustion chambers, and the like. The device includes several vortex generators each with a curved aerodynamic channel amplifier to create a stream of air to aerate the gas as successive stages using both upward and rotational kinetic energy. Further, a vortex generator may have an axial channel with a conical shape or use different curved channel amplifiers to further create the gaseous fuel composite.
United States Patent Application 20110030827
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. February 10, 2011
FLUID COMPOSITE, DEVICE FOR PRODUCING THEREOF AND SYSTEM OF USE
The current disclosure relates to a new fluid composite, a device for producing the fluid composite, and a method of production therewith, and more specifically a fluid composite made of a fuel and its oxidant for burning as part of different systems such as fuel burners, where the fluid composite after a stage of intense molecular between a controlled flow of a liquid such as fuel and a faster flow of compressed highly directional gas such as air results in the creation of a three dimensional matrix of small hallow spheres each made of a layer of fuel around a volume of pressurized gas. In an alternate embodiment, external conditions such as inline pressure warps the spherical cells into a network of oblong shape cells where pressurized air is used as part of the combustion process. In yet another embodiment, additional gas such as air is added via a second inlet to increase the proportion of oxidant to carburant as part of the mixture.
Extremely important reserve in this area could serve as an innovative technique of dynamic homogenization of fuel before injection into the cylinder and combustion boilers and other thermodynamic systems
Here's a basic invention to such highly efficient technology:
United States Patent Application 20100243953
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David September 30, 2010
Method of Dynamic Mixing of Fluids
Methods are provided for achieving dynamic mixing of two or more fluid streams using a mixing device. The methods include providing at least two integrated concentric contours that are configured to simultaneously direct fluid flow and transform the kinetic energy level of the first and second fluid streams, and directing fluid flow through the at least two integrated concentric contours such that, in two adjacent contours, the first and second fluid streams are input in opposite directions. As a result, the physical effects acting on each stream of each contour are combined, increasing the kinetic energy of the mix and transforming the mix from a first kinetic energy level to a second kinetic energy level, where the second kinetic energy level is greater than the first kinetic energy level.