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Bio-mechanics and techniques of non-contact control and monitoring in real time. The value of considering these developments in innovation processes

Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits

The modern technology of production of high purity products, the various processes in the microelectronics, pharmaceutical and many other breakthrough technologies are demanding more accurate and, above all the permanent monitoring equipment that operates without contact with the object of measurement

Bio-medical technologies require a more simple process control and monitoring solutions, one of the main conditions for which the possibility of a stable and accurate operation without direct contact with the controlled object

In the most recent mass measurement operations, such as, for example, analysis, and rapid blood test, seeking to simplify and perform without interference-controlled environment

Robotic devices require more sophisticated sensors for feedback systems, what makes inventors and innovative interpreters of biologically objects constantly search for counterparts to solve their problems in the modular nature of bio-mechanical and more complex and rich bio-integration of composite solutions

The following are the most successful of these solutions:

Engineers have created a flexible device to simulate the sense of touch. Working with a description of the device published in the journal Nanotechnology, her summary of the results Science Now.

The device consists of a gold electrode, mounted on a flexible polymer. A layer of gold electrodes for the production of the authors was applied to a thin strip of silicone, and the resulting "sandwich" was fixed on a grid flexible polymer.

The polymer was then transferred to the electrodes on a thick silicon base and twisting the resulting device inside so that the gold electrodes were inside.

According to the creators, if you put your finger into the device, the current flowing through the electrodes, causing a tingling fingertips. The authors argue that the driving current in the future it will be possible to simulate contact with surfaces of different textures and sensations of heat and cold.

The work is particularly true method of fabricating a flexible device, and fixing the electrodes on it, and not by electrical control. To learn how to pass different textures and sensations, you will need further investigation.

Earlier, another group of engineers presented a device that performs the opposite function - Sensor touch. At its creation inspired by the structure of the authors of hairs, elytra fixing bugs.

Two sensor plates coated fibers were very sensitive to pressure, because it modifies the surface contact between them

Very often created an exceptional sensitivity equivalents of natural biological specimens superior to all existing ideas about

Engineers have created a touch-sensitive sensor that can distinguish between the pressure, shear and torsion. The paper was published in the journal Nature Materials, and its summary of the results in Nature News.

On the creation of scientists was inspired by the sensor system to fix some of the elytra of beetles. It consists of fibers that interlock with each other, when elytra are closed and insects are at rest. To some extent, a system similar to Velcro, with the difference that it has no hooks - fibers are connected with each other only by surface van der Waals interactions.

Similarly, the sensor is designed and created by engineers from the Seoul National University. It consists of two plastic plates bearing the villi, the height of about a micrometer, the diameter is ten times smaller. In the villi sprayed metal coating, which makes them conductive surface.

The two plates are connected to each other hairy the parties face to face and attached to the sensor resistance. Current can pass relatively freely from one plate to another, and the resistance depends on the total area of contact between the fibers. At the slightest change of the resistance changes of the villi, which is the basis of the sensor.

Created by the authors of the prototype was able to fix the pressure of only 5 Pa, which corresponds to the influence of body weight of 510 grams per square in a square meter. The uniqueness of the sensor is that by analyzing the change in resistance, the authors have learned to distinguish between different methods of mechanical impact: pressure, shear and torsion. The same is true of the skin of animals, but the artificial sensors have so far been unable to it.

Engineers have demonstrated the ability of the prototype, recording the movement on it for a ladybug and a drop of water. In addition, attached to the wrist of man, the detector was able to detect a pulse.

Earlier, another group of engineers taught robots to distinguish between surface texture which can not even tell people. The development was based on conventional, commercially available sensors and concerned only optimization algorithms by which robots grope materials and analyze the data.

Scientists have developed a method of touch that allows the robots to distinguish similar in surface texture better than humans do.

The paper was published in the journal Frontiers in Neuro-robotics, its outline can be found on the website of the University of Southern California.

Researchers gathered test robot from commercially available components and engaged in creating software that would allow it to reliably distinguish between the most similar surface.
Tactile sensor, which took place on the basis of touch, mimicked the structure of the human finger.

Outside, it was covered with an elastic "skin" that carries the papillary pattern, and inside was filled with fluid. Inside were heat sensors, force and pressure. When the artificial finger glided over the surface, there were fluctuations in the fluid that resembles a microphone recorded the sensor.

Touch is always associated with the research movement. To distinguish between the surfaces of a person always feels interested in the subject.

Without such movements in the finger oscillation does not occur, giving the necessary information about the texture of the surface.

To teach the robot feel objects, thus obtaining the maximum information, the researchers turned to the theory of probability and Bayes' theorem.

It allows on the basis of circumstantial evidence, which may not be accurate (the results of probing), to determine the probability of an event (the presence of a surface).

The authors first trained the robot to test the compilation of the 117 material, and then asked him to identify one of them with feelings.

It turned out that for distinguishing surfaces with a probability of 95 percent, the robot was enough to make a total of five tactile movements. If the amount of movement was not limited to, the probability of correct identification of the surface reached 99.6 percent, which, according to scientists, more than human ability.

The developed method can be useful to create a prosthesis that can feel the texture of the surface. Also, it can be used to make robots endowed with the sense of touch.

Also of tremendous interest to cause problems in the dynamics and movement, which in biological objects are solved by nature in the form of concise and efficient

A group of Japanese engineers has created a robot that can move along the gradient, just as do the slime mold. The paper was published in the journal Advanced Robotics, it gives an overview of the site

Engineers have set the task of creating a robot that simulates the movement along the gradient, with no pre-selected destinations.

The robot consisted of a bag filled with air, to which were attached to the perimeter of the cylindrical motor elements. Each of them was connected to the two nearest with springs fitted with sensors and motors stretch that could pull the spring.

Motor elements could be in two modes - either fixed on the surface using electromagnets or slide freely.
Each motor element is individually controlled by special oscillators.

Their work is dependent only on the position of the motor element in the coordinates of the simulated gradient. There is no centralized control or program the robot did not.

In terms of the robot device to remind both of primitive multicellular organisms - unicellular slime mold, and even amoebae. Cytoplasm, the actin-myosin complexes and proteins anchor the robot meet an air bag, slip the springs and electromagnets.

No need for a centralized traffic control was not the sole property of the original model. In the computer simulation of the reducible authors show that, due to its plasticity, the robot can be stretched, squeezing through the narrow slit, and then restore the original shape.

Robotics has long used to living organisms as a prototype for their work. The machine simulates the most ancient and primitive type of biological motion, there was only after having been created robots mimic human movement, four-legged mammals, insects and caterpillars.

Of particular interest are the works of creation and simulation of flexible robotic systems, which can be combined with future operators in automated production systems, and especially in the flexible manufacturing of automated robots and modules

Scientists from Harvard University presented a flexible robot with four legs, tentacles, reports Associated Press.

The body of the robot has an X-shaped and made of flexible polymers. In the central part of his body and limbs are located in each chamber. Consistently giving them the air through the connected flexible tube, the operator leads the robot to move.

The robot can move in different ways. The manner of its motion depends on the sequence in which air enters the body and limbs.

The creators claim that "spineless" robot has several advantages over conventional robots made of hard materials. With the ability to strain it can penetrate into the narrow gap (in the tests, "squid" climbed into the gap to two centimeters in height). Low center of gravity makes it more stable.
The robot has 13 inches in length. New Scientist points out that in the future, developers plan to release a larger version. It does not require the connection of the tube: the camera will be supplied gas from the cylinder on the body of the robot.

Robot constructed researchers from Harvard University under the direction of chemist George Whitesides (George Whitesides). The researchers said that they took a sample of squid and starfish. Report of the robot was published in the American scientific journal PNAS.

In developing new and innovative production systems is extremely important to be aware of the latest advances in analog reproduction of subjects of the biosphere

The knowledge and skillful use of them during the formation of innovative solutions can significantly reduce costs and even more important to raise the efficiency of development

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