Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits
In a typical company at the start of its activities are very limited resources
This applies equally to both financial resources and to resources professional, technical and organizational
Is it possible within a typical start-up company to learn how to invent more successfully directed, such as to take into account a very rich experience of inventive predecessors in the same technological field, and in the same starting amount (and if so, what that experience is?).
What does the ratio of successful inventive techniques (which can and should identify and develop) and related natural (that is innate, not susceptible to neoplastic) ability of the inventor?
The Soviet patent engineer, inventor, writer and scientist Genrich Altshuller was convinced of the opportunities identified from the experience of predecessors steadily recurring techniques of successful inventions and opportunities to teach this technique to all interested and capable of learning.
For this purpose, a study was conducted over 40 thousand auth. certificates and patents, and based on identified patterns of development of technical systems and devices inventions developed theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ)
When a technical problem arises before the inventor of the first time, and this is especially characteristic for the start of the project, it is usually not precisely defined, and does not contain any references to solutions.
In addition, as a rule the budding company has no manufacturing experience and production equipment, which can be made at least some - that the experiments
In TRIZ, a form of problems and a form of staging the primary task is called an inventive situation. Its main drawback is that, before an engineer is too many ways and methods of solution. Go through all of them difficult and expensive, and the random selection of paths leads to inefficient trial and error method.
So the first step on the path to the invention - to reformulate the situation in such a way as to cut off the very wording of hopeless and ineffective solutions. This raises the question of which solutions are effective and which ones - no?
G. Altshuller suggested that the most effective solution - one that is achieved "by itself", but at the expense of existing resources. Thus he came to the formulation of the ideal final result (IFR): "A certain element of (X-cell) system or the environment itself eliminates the harmful effects while retaining the ability to perform beneficial effects."
In practice, the ideal final result is rarely achieved in full, but it serves as a benchmark for inventive thinking. The nearer a solution to the IFR, the better it is.
Having cut off the tool ineffective solutions, we can reformulate the inventive situation in a standard mini-task, "according to IFR, everything should remain as it was, but it should disappear, or harmful, unnecessary money, or receive a new, useful, quality."
The main idea of a mini-problem is to avoid the substantial (and expensive) changes and consider first the simplest solutions.
The wording of the mini-tasks facilitates a more accurate description of the problem:
• What the components of the system, how they interact?
• What relationships are harmful, nuisance, what - neutral, and what - helpful?
• What parts and connections can be changed, and what - you can not?
• What changes have lead to the improvement of the system, and what - to the poor?
To start working on the invention seems to be enough, but as in the start of the project, which should be a result of the completion of all work - the product of
How to predict the best opportunity to transform the quality of future inventions in the range of consumer characteristics, which in favorable circumstances, may provide a new product not only technological, but also a commercial success
Consistently try to simulate the situation
... After a mini-problem is formulated and the system is analyzed, usually quickly discovered that trying to change in order to improve some parameters of the system lead to a deterioration of other parameters.
For example, increasing the strength of the wing can lead to an increase in its weight, and vice versa - to facilitate the wing leads to a decrease in its strength. In the system there is a conflict, a contradiction.
It is known that TRIZ distinguishes three types of contradictions (in order of increasing complexity permission):
• Administrative contradiction: "we must improve the system, but I do not know how (do not know how, I have no right) to do it." This contradiction is the weakest and can be removed, or the study of additional material, or the adoption / removal of administrative decisions. Under present conditions many contradictions of the administrative plan - a contradiction begotten business conditions and performance criteria of future inventions, lying in the technological basis for innovative product
• technical contradiction: "the improvement of one parameter of the system leads to a deterioration of another parameter." Technical contradiction - this is staging an inventive problem. The transition from administrative to technical controversy dramatically reduces the dimension of the problem, narrows the search of solutions and allows us to go on trial and error method for inventive problem solving algorithm, which either has to apply one or more standard techniques, or (in the case of complex tasks) indicates one or more physical contradictions. Again today, in the context of technical contradictions need to see the effect on them from the commercial terms of the implementation of an innovative product
• physical contradiction: "to improve the system, some of it should be in different physical states at the same time, it is impossible." A physical contradiction is the most fundamental, because it rests on the inventor of the constraints imposed by physical laws of nature. To solve the problem the inventor must use the reference table and the physical effects of their use.
That was then, and what has changed?
Modern techniques of computer simulation, the emergence and widespread use of engineering and design software systems, gave a significant addition to the methods of solving the system
The system of techniques
Analysis of many thousands of inventions revealed that, across a variety of technical contradictions, most of them solved 40 basic techniques.
Work on drawing up a list of such techniques was initiated by G. Altshuller still in early stages of the theory of inventive problem solving.
For the analysis needed to identify more than 40,000 patents
These techniques now provide for a great heuristic value of the inventors. Their knowledge can greatly facilitate the search for an answer, but to solve problems on a commercial level, this is not enough.
Certainly it is clear, and it is clear that these techniques show only the direction and the area where there may be a strong solution. The specific version of the same solutions they are. This work is a man.
The system of techniques used in TRIZ includes simple and paired (reception-antiproton).
Simple techniques allow you to resolve technical contradictions. Among the simplest methods are the most popular 40 basic techniques.
Paired devices consist of a reception and anti – reception , they can be used to resolve physical contradictions, since in this case considering two opposing actions, states, properties.
Standards for inventive problem solving
Standards for inventive problem solving are a set of techniques that use physical or other effects to be more consistent. This kind of formula, which resolved the problem. To describe the structure of these techniques Altshuller established a real-field (su-field) analysis.
Standards system consists of classes, subclasses and specific standards. This system includes 76 standards. With this system you can not just decide, but to identify new targets and predict the development of technical systems.
Technological effect - the conversion of some technological effects in others. May require the involvement of other effects - physical, chemical, etc.
The physical effects
There are about five thousand of physical effects and phenomena. In various areas of technology can be used different groups of physical effects, but there are also commonly used. There are about 300-500.
Chemical effects - is a subclass of physical effects, which only changes the molecular structure of substances, and a set of fields is limited mostly fields of concentration, velocity and heat. Restricting only the chemical effects can often speed up the search for acceptable solutions.
Biological effects - effects are produced by biological objects (animals, plants, microbes, etc.). Application of the biological effects of the technique allows not only to extend technical systems, but also get results without harming nature. With the help of biological effects can perform various operations: detection, transformation, generation, absorption of matter and fields, and other operations.
Among the most well developed mathematical effects are geometric. Geometric effects - is the use of geometric shapes for a variety of technological change. It is widely known application of the triangle, for example, using a wedge or sliding against each other two triangles.
Real-field resources (CDF) - a resource that can be used to solve problems or develop the system. Use of resources increases the ideality of the system.
Laws of Technical Systems
By studying the changes (evolution) of the technical systems in time, Altshuller identified laws of technical systems, knowledge of which helps engineers to predict the possible ways to further improve the product. First formulated by GS Altshuller in his book "Creativity as an Exact Science" (New York: "Soviet Radio", 1979), laws have been grouped into three conditional block:
• Static - Laws 1-3, determine the conditions for the occurrence and formation of the TC;
• Kinematics - Laws 4-6, 9 define the patterns of development, regardless of the impact of physical factors. Important for the early period of growth and prosperity of the TC;
• Dynamics - 7.8 define the laws of the laws of the TC from the effects of specific physical factors. Important to the final stage of development and transition to the new system.
The most important law considers the "ideality" (one of the basic concepts in TRIZ) system.
Real Field (su-field) analysis
Vepol (matter + field) - a model of interaction in the minimal system, which uses characteristic symbols.
G. Altshuller developed methods for the analysis of resources. Several of the open view of the principles of various substances and fields for conflict resolution and increase of ideality of technical systems. For example, the "teletext" uses the television signal for data transmission, filling the small gaps of time between TV frames in the signal.
Another technique that is widely used by inventors, is to analyze the substances, fields, and other resources that are not used, and which are in the system or close to it.
ARIZ - algorithm of inventive problem solving
Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving (ARIZ) - step by step program (sequence) to identify and resolve contradictions, that is the solution of inventive problems (about 85 steps).
ARIZ includes the actual program
• provision of information, feeding information from the fund
• management methods of psychological factors, which are an integral part in the development of methods of creative imagination (RTV).
There are other approaches that can help an inventor to disclose their creative potential. Most of these methods are heuristic. They were all based on psychology and logic, and none of them claim to be a scientific theory (as opposed to TRIZ).
A. Trial and error method
Three. Method sinectica
4. Morphological analysis of
Five. Method of focal objects
6. Method of test questions
Criticism of TRIZ
After the death of Altshuller , TRIZ has experienced stagnation in their development. In it, as well as the practical application of the theory, according to critics are guilty of the following problems:
There is a methodological problem solving, in spite of her attempts to form the basis of certain patterns of development of technology.
• The distortion of the dialectical approach by introducing some new concepts.
• New versions of ARIZ complicated algorithm instead of eliminating inaccuracies.
• Not have been found suitable for real-world mechanisms of transition from conflict formulated to solve it.
• A set of TRIZ tools were a bust of options despite the declaration of refusal from them.
• Use su-field analysis of physical fields, whose existence is not proven.
• Failure to implement TRIZ in production due to heavy reliance on personal choices a person.
Modern TRIZ includes several schools, developing the classical TRIZ and adding new sections are missing from the classics.
Well-developed technical core of TRIZ (receptions, ARIZ, su-field analysis) remains virtually unchanged, and the activities of the modern school is mainly aimed at rethinking, restructuring and promotion of TRIZ, ie it is more philosophical and advertising than technical, nature.
In connection with this modern school of TRIZ often reproached (as with the hand, and mutually) in infertility and idle chatter. TRIZ is actively used in advertising, business, arts, early childhood development, and so on, but was originally designed for technical creativity.
Classical TRIZ is a general technical version. For practical use of the technique is necessary to have a number of specialized versions of TRIZ, differing nomenclature and content of information assets. Some large corporations have used TRIZ elements, adapted to their areas of expertise. I believe that, and for use in start-ups need to create a special version of TRIZ, adapted to the process of commercialization of the active
There is currently no specialized versions of TRIZ to stimulate discoveries in the sciences (physics, chemistry, biology and so on).
The main obstacle in the development of TRIZ - the lack of methodology for the analysis of the original problem situation, diagnose and predict problems as a source of goal-setting improvements in socio-technical systems. To overcome this lack of focused development of modern methodology futuro-design - "design solutions that are appropriate to the Future."
One of the trends of technical progress is an aggravation of the struggle for copyrighted product developers. Therefore, the demand for innovation and staff, respectively, on the methodology and the software of these works. From this perspective, we need to expand the database with a full range of theoretical approaches.
Meanwhile, the heirs of Altshuller divest any deviation from the position in the original.
They are naturally a right to insist on his interpretation of the name of "TRIZ" and how to act and appeal to the humanitarian and environmental aspects of pedagogy, the art and up to the memoirs.
The alternative is loyalty to the new approaches, new born, emerged in recent years the conditions and realities, supporting afloat TRIZ as a brand of theoretical developments.
New aspects of modeling the innovation process can, in order to avoid excessive controversy, to find a new name, the more that TRIZ consists of words known to the birth of G. Altshuller.