Andrew ( Gabriel ) Livshits
Usually creative activity is determined by the result. As an example, one of the most common definitions : " Creativity is a human activity that creates a qualitatively new material and spiritual values ."
If you try to formulate a definition of creativity as a process , we can see that the creative activity - is the process of finding solutions .
In essence, all human activity can be divided into two broad areas: the area of routine operations and problem solving. Representation of creativity in the form of problem-solving process makes self-evident conclusion: to organize scientific creativity , we must first put on the scientific basis of the problem solving process . In other words , we need TRIZ.
2 . Solving problems are of two kinds : strict and lax . Rigorous solutions based on complete accuracy , accurate information and are usually quite clear. Solutions obtained on the basis of incomplete, inaccurate information , in the face of uncertainty , called lax .
Accordingly, methods for obtaining solutions are divided into strict and heuristics . In solving the tasks set at the present level of development of society , these methods complement each other .
As science many heuristics solutions are formalized and transformed into a class of strict scheme : the accumulation and systematization of knowledge - the development of " instinct " and intuition - formalization of theory development - algorithm .
3 . Addressing existing apparatus is adapted to search for rigorous quantitative solutions.
It includes such sciences as systems analysis , theory of solutions and decision theory . The main idea of the system analysis is the following provision: " The solution to any problem is the process of creating a new system ."
Based on systematic analysis : systems engineering (construction of large technical systems ) and organizational systems engineering (system design organizations).
Decision theory examines methods for finding the best way to achieve goals. Includes disciplines such as operations research ( the application of mathematical and quantitative methods to justify decisions in all areas of purposeful human activity) , the method of linear programming ( selection of the optimal solution of a large number of possible ) .
The theory considers the process of finding solutions to find a solution in the face of uncertainty in terms of information .
4 . Search heuristics deals with TRIZ.
Its main features include the following : a ) the theory should provide a significant increase in the probability of obtaining the right decisions , and b) the theory must search for solutions on a qualitative level , c) the theory must take into account the features of the object and the subject of creativity.
TRIZ meets all the above requirements . In addition, it is based on two premises:
1. New , truly creative solution technique corresponds to the next stage of development of the object to which the decision.
2 . The development process of object technology knowable and can be used to search for new technical solutions.
Factor singularity is what belongs only to this theory , it is most characteristic and distinguishes this theory from similar areas of knowledge .
TRIZ particular factors are:
- The use of the revealed laws of construction and development of technical systems ;
- The presence of optimal logic identify the problem and search for new technical solutions.
To start invite readers to take full certainty one prerequisite - we assume and classified as nano- technology , those processes , the end result of which will be final or intermediate product, all elements of which have dimensions that are in the scale factor is less than one micron
For an even broader classification analysis suggest that we adopt and identify as nano - technology any technological process which produces material or substance having basic form the technical parameters or elements to demonstrate the properties and dimensions inherent nano - particles or elements
NEXT DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS ARIZ
The following main areas:
1. Traditional evolution ARIZ - algorithmization overall increase due to more complete and deeper use of objective laws of the development of technical systems.
2 . Significant strengthening of a "bridge" between the way fizprotivorechiem and his permission.
3 . Strengthening Information Facility , strengthening ties between ARIZ and standards.
4 . Bydelenie second half ARIZ ( development and use of ideas found ) as an independent algorithm .
5 . Development of a new beginning part ( or a single algorithm) to identify new challenges.
6. Strengthening obschevospitatelnoy function. ARIZ should vigorously develop strong thinking skills .
7. Gradual increase of universalism .
Here are some examples of innovative options for solving problems on the formation of nano- emulsions of various fuel mixtures
The following are examples of designs systems for the production of nano- emulsions
First of all, this is an opportunity for one device models for the production of nano- emulsions lead scaling using the software available in production engineering programs
An international group of researchers has discovered the effect of a sharp increase in the frictional force between the individual nanoscale objects. This work allows a better understanding of how the friction force .
Details referring to the publication in the journal Nature Materials leads the official website of the University of Basel , which experts made the discovery together with British and Italian scientists .
Scientists have conducted a series of experiments with an atomic force microscope. This apparatus scans the surface topography by movement therealong particularly sharp needle ( cantilever ) which may " bounce " even on separate atoms.
As a sample, physicists used niobium selenide , NbSe2. The compound was selected due to its layered structure : being actively explored previously as a material for battery electrodes , between layers of niobium and selenium is well lithium ions accumulate .
The layered structure also causes an uneven distribution of electric charge in the material. If niobium selenide cooled to a few tens of kelvin ( -203 effect was observed up to 70 degrees Celsius or Kelvin ) , the electrons in it accumulate in certain places and to such places needle AFM attracted much stronger.
The force of attraction reached one nanonyutona ; scientists to measure it is not used directly moving the needle along the sample , and indirect, based on fluctuations of the needle near the surface method .
When the needle microscope oscillating near the places where the electric charge density is maximized , she experienced the maximum resistance . According to scientists, who leads the University of Basel, like needle immersed in a viscous fluid.
New experiment to better understand the nature of the friction forces at the microscopic level .
When this is not always the transition from ordinary objects to nanoparticles means more friction : another group of scientists recently published a study that described the nonlinear nature of the friction force due to the size of the sample.
Small gold particles on the surface during motion of the crystals sticky could either locally or slide freely depending on how clung to each other of their crystal lattices .
A group of researchers from Germany and the United States has demonstrated in practice earlier theorists predicted effect of reducing the frictional forces in the transition to nanocrystals .
Details leads Physics referring to the publication of scientists in the journal Physical Review Letters.
The following are examples of real application systems for the production of nano- emulsions using hydraulic lowering effect and , in the case of entry into the emulsion compressed gas drag combined hydraulic and aerodynamic conduction system
The design is made using the system automatically change the scale factor of such devices available in the professional design program
As the example shows , not always need expensive laboratory tests, with a creative innovative approach problems can be solved by using technical means available in the design of existing work programs
Physicists working with nanoparticles of gold and antimony . They moved to the graphite plane tip of an atomic force microscope with a rate of one micrometer per second and recorded arising from this force.
Scientists have discovered that the classical description of the friction force during the transition to nanoscales stops working. Friction is not proportional to the area of the object and , in addition, may depend on the orientation of the crystal lattices .
This effect can be likened to the movement of the sled on a rough surface . If the runners are long enough , the small bumps in the road cease to have effect on the motion.
In the case of the nanoparticles play a role periodic irregularities "gaps " of the crystal lattice. If all the atoms are moving object on the surface atoms , the force of adhesion of samples increases and if a large fraction of the atoms is at a greater distance , the friction force decreases.
Particle that can "fall " into the gap of the crystal lattice , is stuck in place, and a group of several such particles successfully overcomes these obstacles. If you make the surface more, it no longer gives the win.
Friction begins again grow with the area of contact with the surface , and this growth will initially be nonlinear.
Experiments have shown that the friction at the nano-scale is strongly dependent on the crystalline structure of matter. Amorphous antimony atoms which are randomly distributed , and experience less friction than the gold particles with a cubic crystal lattice .
The friction force in the case of antimony grew proportional to the square root of the surface area : this law predicted in 2001 , but since then it has not revealed in the experiments and calculations even appeared that refuted the theory .
In the case of gold nanoparticles of the system behavior and the graphite substrate was even more challenging. In this case, the additional role played cubic lattices orientation relative to each other : if they match , then the friction is higher than the sliding deployed at 45 degrees samples.
Study of the frictional force on a microscopic scale , as indicated by scientists can help in the design of materials with low coefficient of friction.
For macroscopic objects operates two Amontons -Coulomb . The first states that friction is proportional to the reaction force bearing and works in most cases.
According to the second law of friction is independent of the area of support , but this is true only in the case of dry friction. In some cases the correct use pattern defined for the case of viscous friction , which is proportional to the square.
... to be continued ...