Andrew ( Gabriel ) Livshits
10 . The main useful function . For a set of useful functions performed by the vehicle, you can always find a more general utility function that directly reflects the purpose of the vehicle, the purpose of its existence and activities ( and coincides with) .
This total is called the main useful function - GPF entire vehicle as opposed to elementary useful features ( hereafter - Cumulative - PF) , in conjunction
ensuring the implementation of the SPC . The relationship between the SPC and PF is the same as that between the system and its subsystems. GPF refers to the system as a whole, PF - to its subsystems.
11. A positive effect. Any change in the vehicle, increasing the capabilities of this vehicle to meet the needs of the super-systems ( and society as well) , there is an improvement of the system.
Improving vehicle is shown in the following changes to the system at the level of the external function :
- The quantitative growth of beneficial " abilities " TS - turning insalubrious " abilities " in useful ;
- The elimination of harmful " abilities " until their conversion into useful ;
- Increasing the ratio of useful output to the input , ie, improving the efficiency of TS.
14. Dialectical contradiction . The source of the vehicle, as well as any object of the material world , is the law of the unity and struggle of opposites - a universal law of nature, society , and technology.
Opposites are part of the object , which are in mutually exclusive ways. In this case, the under side of an object or phenomenon is understood everything that somehow inherent in the object or phenomenon that characterizes it and be known .
Opposites in the TS are the "input " and "output" , useful features and costs "abilities" .
The interaction of opposites, when they both mutually presuppose and yet deny mutually exclusive, is a dialectical contradiction.
15. Technical contradiction (TA) - a dialectical contradiction , which manifests itself in the technical system in the form of degradation on the one hand the vehicle to a level of external operation ( from the perspective of the needs of super-system ) for improving the other side of the CU.
In other words , the TA can be defined as a dialectical unity of mutually positive and adverse effects in the TS. TP is always associated with some component of the TC ( element or group of elements of the interaction elements) , which is called the focal component ( CC).
This component of the TC connected directly with the two sides of the vehicle, and the amount of change of a parameter (or state) of the component leads to an improvement of one and the deterioration of the other side of TS.
Therefore, a more accurate TP should be defined as a dialectical unity of the positive and adverse effects of interrelated quantitative or qualitative changes in the node component of the TS.
16. Inventive problem occurs when there is an exacerbation of TP inherent TC . With the improvement of some " abilities " TS by quantitative changes in some parameters becomes impossible due to the significant deterioration of other " abilities ".
Attempts to save the TS by the compromise between the parties , in this case, opposites do not succeed . Resolution TP possible in case of a transition to a qualitatively new vehicle condition - dialectical leap. This is an invention.
When considering in more general terms the problem of resolving the contradiction between the social need and the ability to satisfy it can be reduced to one of two problems:
a) search for material form, based on the laws of nature and allows you to perform a function corresponding to a specific social need - the information problem ( search for a new system);
b) the resolution of internal dialectical contradictions in the technical system that satisfies a social need - a problem which is a contradiction .
These two types of problems are associated with each other and in practice technical activity into one another .
17. Physical contradiction. Technical contradiction in shape playing in the vehicle to the level of its foreign operations. At the level of the internal functioning of mutually exclusive relationship between the parties of the system is observed : from the physical point of view of the vehicle is in any one particular state of the laws of nature .
But if you put the task of removing the TP in the framework of the vehicle , claiming the positive and negative unwanted effects , the mutually exclusive relationship will manifest at the level of the internal functioning of incompatible requirements for the parameter ( state) TC Hub component , or more precisely to the physical condition of the unwanted Code.
Such contradictions are called physical ( PT) . AF is shown in the problem statement elimination of TP , in other words , OP - a form of expression of the problem of eliminating TP in the framework of the Customs Union. Resolution OP is to establish new forms of organization and the motion of matter in the vehicle, in which both are made of incompatible requirements of the unwanted Code , or in the words of Karl Marx , in the establishment of such a " form of movement , which is a contradiction at the same time and is allowed ."
Introduction to modified on the basis of the recently raised the conditions of development of standardized systems of innovation and complex theory of inventive problem solving ( TRIZ)
1. Usually, creative activity is determined by the result. As an example, one of the most common definitions : " Creativity is a human activity that creates a qualitatively new material and spiritual values."
If you try to formulate a definition of art as a process , we can see that the creative activity - is the process of finding solutions .
In fact , all human activity can be divided into two broad areas: the routine operations and problem solving.
Representation of creativity in the form of problem-solving process makes self-evident conclusion: To organize scientific creativity , we must first put on a scientific basis for problem-solving. In other words , we need TRIZ .
2 . Solutions of the problems are of two kinds: strict and lax . Rigorous solutions are based on the full confidence of accurate information and , as a rule , it is quite clear. Solutions obtained on the basis of incomplete , inaccurate information , in the face of uncertainty , called lax .
Accordingly, the methods of obtaining solutions are divided into strict and heuristic methods . In solving the tasks set at the present level of development of society , these methods complement each other.
With the development of science , many heuristic solution methods are formalized and become the class of strict scheme : the accumulation and systematization of knowledge - the development of " instinct " and intuition - the formalization of theory development - the algorithm .
3 . The existing machine solutions adapted to search for rigorous and quantitative solutions. This includes science such as systems analysis , theory of solutions and decision theory . The basic idea of the system analysis is the following provision : " The solution to any problem is the process of creating a new system."
Based on systemic analysis : systems engineering (construction of large technical systems ) and organizational systems engineering (system engineering organizations).
Decision theory considers the methods of finding the best ways to achieve goals.
Includes disciplines such as operations research ( the application of mathematical and quantitative methods to study solutions in all areas of purposeful human activity) , the method of linear programming ( selection of the optimal solutions of the large number of possible ) .
The theory considers the search for solutions to the process of finding solutions in the face of uncertainty in terms of information .
4 . Search heuristics deals with TRIZ . Its main features are the following : a) the theory should provide a significant increase in the probability of obtaining the right decisions , and b) the theory must search for solutions on a qualitative level , and c) the theory must take into account the characteristics of the object and the subject of creativity .
TRIZ meets all the requirements listed above. In addition, it is based on two main principles:
1. The new , truly creative solutions in technology meets the next stage of development of the object to which the decision.
2 . Patterns of development of object technology knowable and can be used to search for new technical solutions.
Factor singularity is something that is inherent only to this theory , the most characteristic of her, and distinguishes this theory from similar areas of knowledge . For TRIZ particular factors are:
- The use of the revealed laws of construction and development of technical systems ;
- The presence of optimal logic to identify the problem and search for new technical solutions.