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Alternative , synthetic fuels and innovative fuel mixture. Expert comparative evaluation of their performance in terms of TRIZ

2013-10-10
Andrew ( Gabriel ) Livshits

Every day methanol as a fuel or fuel additive to mix the growing attention of specialists and managers

No account is taken by many factors , such as commercial , technical, environmental and economic , as well as more significant factor today 's energy independence

In view of the fact that, unfortunately, many experts are not completely familiar with TRIZ and ARIZ , it makes sense to spend a short preliminary analysis of the opportunities and the overall efficiency of methanol in the production and use of fuel blends

Today, only the absolute optimist does not pay attention to the alarming pollution of product remaining in all types of energy production

The inventors have formed an innovative system solutions that , with varying degrees of success and allow to obtain the necessary amount of energy and does not pollute the environment to limit the irreversible

For a comparative analysis of the return to the definitions and characteristics, known for his Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

The systems approach is a reflection and development of dialectical principles of " universal interconnection " and " development" and , in fact , is one of the principles of the dialectical method of cognition. The methodology of the systems approach involves representation of any object in the form of a system and its comprehensive review.

2 . System - a complex of elements , naturally organized in space and time , interconnected and form a definite integral unity . The system is characterized by elements of the composition , structure, and performs a specific function.

3 . Elements - this is a relatively indivisible part of the whole , objects that collectively form a system . An item is considered indivisible within the conservation of a particular quality system.

4 . Structure - a natural stable relationship between the elements of the system that reflects the shape , the way the elements and nature of the interaction between the parties and their properties. The structure makes the system defined by a certain qualitatively different from the sum of qualities of its constituent elements (b.p. involves the interaction elements with each other in different ways, only certain aspects , features and not as a whole. )

5 . Function - the outward manifestation of the properties of an object ( element) in the system of relations , a certain way of object interaction with the environment, the "ability " of the object . Systems have many features.

6. Subsystem ( subsystem ) - part of the system , representing some arbitrary or naturally selected group of elements. Isolation of the subsystems on a functional basis . One element can sometimes coincide with a subsystem or go to several different subsystems. The connection between the elements within the subsystems within the system , and different from that of communication between the subsystems themselves . Elements and subsystems combine the concept of system components .

7. Super-system ( meta- ) - a system of higher order with respect to this , and in which the system operates and is inscribed " the rights " of the subsystem.

8. Technical system (TS ) is a man-made material unity naturally organized in space and time and are in the concatenation of elements , aiming to meet some of its functioning social need . Elements of vehicles can be both artificial and natural . Any vehicle comes in two systems of relations . On the one hand - this is the object of the material world , obeying the laws of nature (especially the laws of physics as the most common ) , on the other hand, the vehicle acts as an element of social relations , because the technology is only a tool for social purposes. If the vehicle is characterized by the spatial arrangement of elements, the vehicle - a device or substance . If the vehicle is characterized by the organization of elements in time - dealing with the process .

The concept vehicle allows us to formulate the main feature of technical solutions (TP) : TP specifies a particular vehicle , the operation of which can reach the set goal , ie, the ratio of TC indicates to some purpose .

Based on the common understanding that natural hydrocarbon reserves are not unlimited , many inventors and inventive singles groups looking for any way to offer an alternative fuel , not always thinking about how this decision will be to work in a system as complex elements

Small British company produced the first fuel from the air , using a revolutionary technology that could help solve the energy crisis, the newspaper writes Independent. The company Air Fuel Synthesis produced 5 liters of fuel since August , when it launched a small plant for the production of liquid fuels from carbon dioxide and water vapor , according to author Steve Connor .

The company hopes that in two years it will be able to build a larger unit capable of producing a ton of fuel per day . " Although the process is still in its early stages and needs to electricity from the national grid , the company believes that the result will be possible to harness the power of renewable energy sources , wind power or tidal dams " - emphasizes the journalist .

" We took the carbon dioxide from the air and hydrogen from water and turned these elements into fuel. Nobody does anything like this either in this country or abroad , as far as we know ," - says CEO Peter Harrison. "Our fuel is able to work in existing engines . This means that it can be used in existing transport infrastructure ," - he says. He believes that this fuel can change the natural and economic landscape of the UK.

Originally intended to be produced innovative fuel mixed with the ordinary. The technology is also ideal for remote areas that have sufficient sources of renewable energy, but limited capacity to store them , says Harrison.

Although the prototype system developed for the release of carbon dioxide from the air , this part of the process is too inefficient in terms of commercial use, the author of this article. However, Professor Klaus Lackner of Columbia University in New York says that the high cost of any new technology is always in time is sharply reduced .

Messages about it appeared in many online publications, and I think in different interpretations
Here is another post about this same method for the solution of the energy problem

The British company Air Fuel Synthesis has developed a technology to produce gasoline by synthesizing carbon dioxide and water vapor , reports The Daily Mail.

According to the company , from August to its researchers built a miniature processing complex managed to create 5 liters of petrol.

In the Air Fuel Synthesis believe that their development can be a solution to the growing global energy crisis. To date, the production of one ton of gasoline on the new technology costs about 400 pounds ( 644 dollars) , writes Motor.ru.

Workflow firm comprises mixing air with sodium hydroxide . The resulting solution of hydrogen is electrolyzed , which allows to create natural carbon dioxide. Subsequently, it is mixed with water drawn from the hydrogen for the hydrocarbon mixture. After mixing with fuel additives , so you can fill the car with fuel .
The company currently uses electricity from the network, but in the future hopes to become completely autonomous from its own renewable energy sources.

In the Air Fuel Synthesis expect after 2 years to build a full-fledged processing facility that will be able to produce a ton of gasoline per day , and after 15 years, the company plans to produce gasoline synthesized on an industrial scale .

In connection with these reports are totally unnecessary reminders that have long been known effective renewable energy, one of the cheapest and most effective of which is methanol
limitations

• Methanol is attacking aluminum. Problem is the use of aluminum carburetors and fuel injection systems in internal combustion engines. This applies mainly to the raw methanol containing significant amounts of impurities formic acid and formaldehyde. Technically pure methanol containing water begins to react with the aluminum at a temperature above 50 ° C, and with normal carbon steel is not responding at all.
• The hydrophilicity . Methanol draws water that is causing the separation of mixtures of diesel fuel and methanol .
• Methanol as ethanol increases the evaporative capacity of plastics for some plastics ( for example, density polyethylene ) . This feature enhances the risk of methanol increase of emissions of volatile organic substances, which may lead to a decrease in ozone concentration and enhance solar radiation.
• Reduced volatility in cold weather : engines running on pure methanol may have problems running at a temperature below +10 ° C and have increased fuel consumption to reach operating temperature. This problem however, is easily solved by adding 10-25 % methanol in gasoline.

A low level of impurities methanol can be used in existing fuel vehicles using suitable corrosion inhibitors. So-called . European directive fuel quality (European Fuel Quality Directive) allows up to 3% methanol, with an equal amount of additives in gasoline prodavaemom in Europe.

Today, China uses more than one billion gallons of methanol per year as a transportation fuel in low-level blends used in existing vehicles, as well as higher- mix in vehicles designed to use methanol as fuel.

When using methanol as a fuel to be noted that the volume and the mass energy ( calorific value ) of methanol was 40-50% less than that of gasoline , but the heat spirtovozdushnyh gasoline and fuel-air mixture when the combustion engine varies significantly for the reason that high value of the heat of vaporization of methanol improves the filling cylinder and reduce its thermal stress , which leads to increased combustion efficiency spirtovozdushnoy mixture.

As a result of this increase in engine power is increased by 10-15%. Engines racing cars operating on methanol with higher octane number than the gasoline have a degree of compression , greater than 15:1, whereas in a conventional spark ignition engine with compression for unleaded gasoline as a rule, not more than 11.5:1 . Methanol can be used as in classical internal combustion engines and in fuel cells specific for electricity.

Methanol is an important quality is that the exhaust gases e2 3 times less toxic components than when using gasoline. However, the above-mentioned drawbacks and small resources of methanol is almost not allowed to use it today as a standalone fuel.

Therefore, it is used as an additive to gasoline. In the experiments, a mixture with a methanol content of from 5 to30 %. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases is reduced by 14-72 %. A mixture of methanol- gasoline reduces somewhat the power characteristics of the engine . But it should be borne in mind that addition of methanol , for example in an amount of 15 % increase in octane number from a mixture of 88 to 95.8 .

When appropriate alteration engine to increase the compression ratio it is possible to obtain even save on fuel consumption .

Due to the fact that, thanks to the introduction of innovative technologies for extracting shale gas resources of raw materials for the production of methanol increased significantly and this factor allows us to hope that the limited resources of the air will not even be a fantasy fans sensations and experiments used for the production of existing and more efficient products

For preparing the fuel mixture is supposed to apply a dynamic mixing apparatus and activating fuel mixture
Option 1 - pre-mixing with said device and the burner on the boiler feed without any changes in the design and operation cycle burner and boiler
Option 2 - premixing with said infeed unit and installed at the inlet to the boiler burner is a device which, after homogenization of the mixture supplied to the burner ( with no change in the boiler and burner design is not performed )
Option 3 - mixing is performed at a set inlet to the burner boiler dynamic mixing apparatus and activating fuel mixture (with no change in the boiler and burner design is not performed )
On the basis of the methods and techniques of regulated and recommended TRIZ and ARIZ and on the basis of the concept of the ideal final result , a system of pre-tests and tests that can confirm the facts to achieve a perfect end result when used as a fuel mixture - a mixture of methanol and diesel toopliva

PURPOSE OF THE FIRST PHASE OF THE TEST

The purpose of the first stage of the test is to verify the effect of the fuel mixture in the form of an emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol concentration of soot in diesel engine exhaust gases
An additional purpose of the first test step is to test the effect of the fuel mixture in the form of an emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol concentration of carbon monoxide , carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exhaust gases of the diesel engine
An additional purpose of the first test step is to test the effect of the fuel mixture in the form of an emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust gases of diesel engine
Indirect test objectives are:

  • Checking the capability of modern serial diesel engine with an emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol, instead of conventional diesel
  • Verification of the possibility of the control system of modern mass -diesel emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol instead of conventional diesel fuel
  • Checking the capability of modern serial diesel engine with a device for the dynamic of the emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol fuel system built into the engine between the fuel filter and the high-pressure pump
  • Checking the capability of the fuel system of modern serial diesel engine with an emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol, instead of conventional diesel
  • Is it possible to maintain effective regulation of the injection and ignition systems of modern diesel engine series , using an emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol instead of conventional diesel fuel
  • Is it possible to effectively connect the pipe leading from the exit of the emulsion apparatus for dynamic preparation of the emulsion to the entrance to the modern high-pressure pump series diesel engine
  • Is it possible to control the balance of the emulsion flow rate at the outlet of the device to dynamically make the emulsion and pump inlet pressure of modern diesel engine serial
  • Checking stable features of the modern diesel engine series being supplied with an emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol at a flow change and proportions emulsion between diesel fuel and methanol emulsion
  • Verification of the device for the dynamic of the emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol by varying the working parameters of the device in the presence or absence of a vortex and out of the device when the gap in the conical annular channel device 100 microns by 25 microns
  • Verification of the device for the dynamic of the emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol by varying the working parameters of the device in the presence or absence of a vortex and out of the device when changing the size and number of channels for supplying water to the emulsion preparation zone
  • Checking for changes in the magnitude of the torque developed by serial modern diesel engine , by using it instead of the conventional diesel fuel - fuel emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol
  • Checking the pressure in the cylinders of modern diesel engine serial using, instead of conventional diesel fuel , - an emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol
  • Checking the pressure level of the fuel vapor mixture into an emulsion of diesel fuel and water , after injection into the cylinders of modern diesel engine serial
  • Comparing the concentration levels of soot in the exhaust gases of a modern diesel engine mass when used as a fuel mixture , - the emulsion of diesel oil and methanol to Standards

- Comparing the concentration levels of soot in the exhaust gases of a modern diesel engine mass when used as a fuel mixture , - the emulsion of diesel fuel and methanol, and conventional diesel
Test equipment
Testing equipment corresponds to the scheme applied to the technical requirements
Modern serial diesel engine for trials
For the tests used a standard commercially available diesel engine of any model of a cylinder capacity of 2.4 liters :
Maximum diesel consumption : 7.5 gph
Minimum consumption of diesel fuel : 2 gallons per hour
Torque: according to the passport engine
The concentration of carbon black : comparison to accept restrictive requirements of applicable environmental standards
Device for the dynamic of the emulsion of diesel fuel and water
To test the device is intended to maximum capacity 10 gallons per hour
The device is manufactured in accordance with the instructions attached to the present terms of reference

Characteristics of emulsion designed for testing modern diesel engine series

The options and the proportions between the components of the emulsion :

The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as a 5 % and 95 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as a 10% and 90 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as a 15 % and 85 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as a 20 % and 80 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as a 25% and 75 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as a 30 % and 70 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as much as 35 % and 65 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as a 40 % and 60 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture as a 45 % and 55 %
The relationship between methanol and diesel fuel in the mixture with 50% and 50%

Test procedure
Test procedure should be set out in a supplementary document
The initial specifications for a modern diesel engine , which will be used to test
The initial specifications for the diesel engine to be set out in a supplementary document
General requirements for tests
General requirements for the tests to be stated in a supplementary document

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