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The integration of the realities and contingencies in the latest innovative light sources in ophthalmology

Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits

At the largest international exhibition of Photonics - 2013 were shown surgical illuminators have no analogues in the world on a miniature size and brightness of the light

To prove compelling and unique benefits of these items were used as shown for the first time in the world measuring devices the size of a smartphone

So one innovative design, first demonstrated at the most prestigious international exhibition, helped to demonstrate the importance and relevance of the other innovation presented at the same show
But the creation of this wonderful innovation preceded by numerous studies and scientific and technical publications

Here are some of them:

Physicists have created a microscopic silicon swirling light source, the light is composed of photons with orbital angular momentum. The paper was published in the journal Science, it gives a summary of site of the University of Bristol.

Twisting of light determines the phase distribution of the photons in the beam - to cross a "slice" of swirling beam across the stage will be different. Forward is not related to the polarization - either flat or circular.

Usually this light are produced by passing the laser beam through a special device. They use holographic plate or special lenses. These devices are suitable for research, but can be quite expensive and cumbersome.

The author managed to create a light source with a controlled angular momentum based on silicon optical waveguides. The size of the device does not exceed 4 micrometers - on the same substrate could accommodate thousands of such sources.

The technology of production is not very different from the technology of microarrays.

Such sources can be useful to study the properties of single photons with optical angular momentum. In addition, they can be used to transmit information.

Recently, another group of researchers showed that the angular momentum of the photon can be a separate channel coding for transmission of information. Then the scientists were able to achieve a rate of 2.56 terabits per second on the beam with a single wavelength.

Scientists were able to use the orbital angular momentum of light for a significant amount of compression of information transmitted by the laser beam. The paper was published in the journal Nature Photonics, and a brief description is provided in an editorial Science.

In the prototype of the experimental setup, which is created by the authors, the information transmitted through the air with only a monochrome laser. In these conditions, the engineers managed to achieve speeds of 2.56 terabits per second.
In order to achieve this density, the authors used 32 separate laser transmitter that encode information using conventional amplitude modulation (ie, light intensity).

Then, the light of each of the transmitter does the procedure "tightening" phase and collected in a single beam. This beam is transmitted through the air, and in the receiver, all procedures were repeated in reverse order. However, though the single-color light transmitted beam, individual differently twisted channels do not interfere with each other.

Twisting, which is used by the authors, is not related to the radial or circular polarization. Called polarized light, in which the vector of the electric or magnetic field varies primarily in one plane. If this plane is not constant, but is rotated, it is called circular polarization.

Called twisted light, which has no polarization (flat or circular), and the so-called orbital angular momentum.

Ordinary light in a plane that is perpendicular to the beam direction, has the same phase. In light of the many swirling waves with one phase is not a plane, but a spiral, twisted along the beam.

This spiral can be tightened with a different period (stronger or weaker). Light, swirling with different periods, can be spread in a single beam without disturbing each other. This, as shown by the authors, can be used to create individual data channels in a single beam.

Engineers managed to create a device that broke the record speed of information transmission using radio terahertz range. The achieved speed is 3 gigabits per second at a frequency of 542 GHz. Paper describing the experiment, published in Electronics Letters, in summary form, it is described on the website BBC News.

For the generation of radiation, the authors used the resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) measures just about a millimeter. Their work is based on the effect of quantum tunneling of electrons between different energy states. Used to encode the signal amplitude modulation.

Speed reached by the authors is regarded as very high: it is, for example, ten times more than the average rate of municipal Wi-Fi channels.

T-rays are called electromagnetic waves, the frequency range of approximately 0.3 to 3 terahertz. They are intermediate between infrared and microwaves.

To date, this range is almost never used for communications, due to the absence, until recently, relatively simple, cheap and efficient generators.

For solid-state infrared lasers T-rays are too long, and for the classical semiconductor devices - too short a wavelength.

In November 2011, the Japanese company unveiled ROHM miniature terahertz generators that could potentially be used in communications devices. With mass production the cost, according to the manufacturer, not to exceed $ 5 per share.

Currently, T-rays are used in two ways: for a medical examination and screening of passengers to ensure safety in transportation. Both applications are based on the ability of T-rays to penetrate non-conductive materials - plastic, paper, cloth, and so on.

At the same time they are quite strongly absorbed by metals and water. This property, along with the need for direct line of sight between transmitter and receiver, the communication greatly limits the potential use of T-rays outdoors.

In addition to these publications were developed many inventions that were worked fragments of future technology innovation endoscopy

United States Patent Application 20060250934
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. November 9, 2006
Three dimensional optical information carrier and a method of manufacturing thereof
A three dimensional optical information carrier is presented. The information carrier comprises formatting marks disposed on the nodes of a three dimensional lattice formed by the intersection of equiangular spaced radial planes, equidistantly spaced cylindrical spiral tracks and virtual recording planes.

United States Patent Application 20070288947
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David December 13, 2007
Disclosed is a swing type optical disc drive. The drive includes a disc rotating on a disc support and a swing arm pivoted at one of its ends and having a distal end communicating with an encoder. The pivot point and a point on distal end define a swing axis of the arm. The disc further includes an optical system mounted on the arm such that optical axis of the system is parallel with the swing axis and both axes lie in the same plane. A cam actuator imparts a swinging motion to the arm. The swinging motion of the arm positions the plane with the optical axis and the arm axes such that the plane is always tangent to a reading / recording track of the disc.

United States Patent Application 20080182060
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. July 31, 2008
Manufacturing of Multi-Plate For Improved Optical Storage
In accordance with the invention a new optical data carrier and methods for its production are provided. The optical data carrier of the invention is characterized in that different plates have different concentrations.

United States Patent Application 20080285396
Kind Code A1
Salomon; Yair; et al. November 20, 2008
Method and Apparatus of Formatting a Three Dimensional Optical Information Carrier
A method of formatting at least one optical information carrier is provided. The method is aimed at creating a plurality of formatting marks that are to be sequentially addressed when reading recording information in the carrier. The method comprises recording the plurality of formatting marks within the carrier volume in an interleaved order, thereby reducing delays in recording locally adjacent formatting marks thus reducing the entire carrier formatting time.

United States Patent Application 20090245066
Kind Code A1
Katsuura; Kanji; et al. October 1, 2009
An optical data carrier is presented. The data carrier comprises: at least one recording layer composed of a material having a fluorescent property variable on occurrence of multi-photon absorption resulting from an optical beam, said recording layer having a thickness for forming a plurality of recording planes therein; at least one non-recording layer formed on at least one of upper and lower surfaces of said recording layer and differing in fluorescent property from said recording layer; and at least one reference layer having a reflecting surface being an interface

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