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Biomechanics and innovative electrochemistry in the environmentally friendly and waste production

2013-02-17
Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits

A detailed report of the Institute of ecological problems BLACKSMITH and the Swiss Society for the Protection of the environment on the level of harm of various companies world production has caused a bombshell. According to the doctors, and environmental problems take a toll each year, 125 million people in the world.

The damage from the various companies can be compared with the results of epidemics such as tuberculosis and malaria, to the creation of appropriate vaccines to stop the spread of these diseases. All in the report list contains 2,600 enterprises, which have a direct threat to the health and lives of the local population. Most of these plants are located in India, China, Peru, Colombia, West Africa, and parts of Russia.

A list of plants that recycle car batteries containing different acid and lead. The results of the environmental stagger the imagination: it is a huge loss of human life.

It is noted that all over the world are engaged in recycling of automotive batteries. In the case of the advanced industrial countries, protecting the environment, there is no damage. But when it comes to developing countries where the companies operate without environmental control and monitoring, the results are devastating.

Smelting of lead is harmful, as a working enterprise, and for people living near the plant. Similar problems arise in the utilization of its equipment obsolete electronics. We are talking mainly about the West African countries. Just report mentions 70 such enterprises. Direct damage to life 2.5 million people a year.

Processing of leather, dead animals are also very harmful to people. 2 million people a year die as a result of a contact with the wastes of production.

The report states that only strict control and proper security can positively affect the health of future generations.

Scientists have found that the presence of water is not required for normal operation of the mobility and myoglobin. The paper was published in the journal Journal of the American Chemical Society, and a summary of its results in New Scientist.

The work of most proteins, especially enzymes associated with intra-molecular mobility. Its means the movement of various structures within the protein molecules to each other.

The study authors were interested in how to change the mobility of the peptide, if the water associated with it replaced by surfactants - surface-active polymers.

Scientists have carried out such a change in myoglobin, and then monitored the intra-molecular dynamics by neutron scattering. In this case, due to the substitution of hydrogen by deuterium in the surfactant, the scientists could observe the movement apart of the protein itself and the surrounding polymer "fur."

The scattering data show that the use of surfactants, myoglobin remained almost as flexible and fluid as in the presence of water. He's still connected and let oxygen, despite the fact that it is accompanied by changes in the three-dimensional structure of the polypeptide and requires significant intra-molecular motions.

So far Biophysics believed that the existence of such mobility with protein molecule must be associated a large number of water molecules, which is used to maintain the structures and "lubricity" friction parts peptide. These results may be useful for artificial photosynthesis systems and catalysis

American chemists accelerated the work of the enzyme lipase CALB by pre-modification and irradiation with light.

The work published in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. Her brief retelling can be read at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

In order to speed up the enzyme, chemists decided to make it photoactive compounds.

Upon irradiation with light of a specific wavelength such a connection was to change its conformation, and convert light energy into mechanical energy, "pushing" the enzyme to perform work.

The object of the study authors decided to use a lipase B (enzyme that destroys fat) from the bacteria Candida antarctica - CALB.

To find out what is the place of the enzyme should be administered photoactive compounds, they had to try and make a set of points with virtual enzymes, many computer simulations. In order to model the researchers used the power of a supercomputer Jaguar, located at the National Center for Computer Science at Oak Ridge (USA). In June 2011, this supercomputer is the third largest in the world of performance.

During the simulation showed that the photoactive compound (azobenzen) must be entered between the loops, which, despite the fact that far from the active site, affect the transmission of changes in the conformation of the protein CALB.
Pratul Agarwal, the first author of the paper, commented on the results of a computer simulation, "Simulation helped us to understand how the mechanical energy from the surface can be finally transferred to the active site, where it is used to make a chemical reaction."

After the results of the simulation well suited tested on real protein. The speed of the modified enzyme when exposed to light was increased (depending on conditions) in 8-52 times.

Enzymes are used in a variety of biotechnological processes. Research that will improve their work, have the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of many substances.

United States Patent 6,139,714
Livshits October 31, 2000
________________________________________
Method and apparatus for adjusting the pH of a liquid
Abstract
A process for adjusting the pH of an aqueous flowable fluid includes an electrochemical mechanism for adjusting the pH of an aqueous flowable fluid and a mechanism for then electrochemically stabilizing the adjusted pH of the fluid. A device for performing the process is also included. The device includes an inlet and a channel in fluid communication with the inlet. The channel has the appearance and properties of a U-shaped connected vessel. The U-shaped connected vessel includes an inlet accumulating passage in fluid communication with an active zone between two spaced electrodes wherein the active zone has a small volume relative to the passage for accelerating fluid flow from the passage through the active zone complying with the physics of connected vessels.

United States Patent 5,871,814
Livshits February 16, 1999
________________________________________
Pneumatic grip
Abstract
A device for shaping a vacuum includes a housing having a primary passageway which includes an inlet. A fluid shaping mechanism is disposed in the primary passageway in fluid communication with the inlet for changing the shape of a fluid flow into a planar fluid flow flowing radially outwardly from a central point. The fluid shaping mechanism includes a conically-shaped portion disposed within the primary passageway, a plurality of secondary passageways extending through the housing from a periphery of the cone-shaped surface to outlets at a bottom surface of the housing, and a reflector adjacent to and spaced from the bottom surface for uniformly reflecting the fluid from the secondary passageways radially outwardly to create a vacuum adjacent thereto.
United States Patent Application 20100193445
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. August 5, 2010
________________________________________
FOAMING OF LIQUIDS
Abstract
Methods and systems for processing of liquids using compressed gases or compressed air are disclosed. In addition, methods and systems for mixing of liquids are disclosed.

The work of the chemist at the University of Buffalo, who was trying to repeat the results of the experiment group of scientists, led to the fact that this group of articles were published in two denials prestigious scientific journals.

One of the journals that published rebuttal was Science, ranking among the most prestigious scientific publications. On the website of the University Buffalo provides detailed information about these events.

John Richard (John P. Richard) investigated the mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis. Catalysis - the acceleration of reactions by certain substances, which do not change during the reaction.

In living systems, catalysts are special proteins - enzymes. In 2004, Science published an article, which the authors reported that they were able to change the enzymatic activity of a protein.

This publication has caused a great resonance in the scientific community, because so far the establishment of the enzyme, in fact, de novo considered impossible.

Richard tried to repeat the experiment in his laboratory. Despite the large number of attempts, he and his colleagues failed to reproduce the results of the authors work. Instead, in the laboratory of Richard found that the "new" activity determined by the contamination of the protein preparation one of the enzymes of the organism from which the protein was obtained.

That is, the authors are not well cleaned protein preparation.

Richard reported his findings to one of the authors, Omu Nellingen (Homme Hellinga), as well as the editors of the journal Science and the Journal of Molecular Biology, which published erroneous results.

Nellingen recognized that publications mistakes were made, and both magazines posted rebuttal. Investigation of Duke University, where the work was performed, found that the environmental damage was a student who cleared the drug.

In this paper, dedicated dezavurovaniyu articles published in the journal Nature, underlines that the incident indicates the correct course of the scientific process. On the other hand, verification of incorrect results and search errors are time-consuming and, in addition, are very costly.
Many scientists who discovered the discrepancy, choose not to understand its causes, and just give up on the experiment.

Richard believes that this is the wrong approach, which, in the end, destroy the same researchers. Funds, providing money for scientific work, guided by the publications in the field.

If you do not delete the wrong, especially seemingly promising results, scientists are less likely to receive a grant for their not so interesting at first glance, the works.

Two influential scientific journals, Science and Nature publish annual rebuttal to the five or six items. One of the most famous recent example was the denial of retraction articles from Nature, one of the authors was that Linda Buck (Linda Buck), Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine in 2004.

British physicists have learned to control the motion of drops, levitating above the hot surface due to the Leidenfrost effect: to guide them up the ramp and turn down the sides. The paper was published in the journal Scientific Reports, and its summary can be read at the University of Bath.

Scientists have worked with metal surfaces, carrying gear texture of a different nature. These heated surface, researchers apply a drop of water and watched them going.

It was found that the slope of jagged fissures sends levitating drop boiling water along their own inclination, even when at the same time a drop had to climb uphill against gravity.

The authors showed that the surface with a sharp furrows can "move" drop up at greater angles - up to 18 degrees.

In addition, scientists have created a surface with a triple-notch: the relatively large capital furrow applied at right angles more. These surfaces have an even more unusual properties.

They sent boiling drops up the slope, but it is allowed to control horizontal displacement: drops move right, left, or right, depending on the temperature to which it has been heated surface.

Leidenfrost effect is well known to all who have ever dripped water on a hot griddle. It lies in the fact that the water on the surface that is greater than a certain critical value, starts to levitate on a cushion of steam coming from the bottom of the drop.

Earlier, another group of physicists showed that the Leidenfrost effect can be used to force the water to boil without the formation of bubbles. In the experiment, the scientists immersed in water heated metal balls with strong water repellency by applying microtexture and a special chemical coating.

United States Patent Application 20100224506
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. September 9, 2010
________________________________________
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR COMPLEX TREATMENT OF LIQUIDS
Abstract
Methods and apparatus for complex treatment of contaminated liquids are provided, by which contaminants are extracted from the liquid. The substances to be extracted may be metallic, non-metallic, organic, inorganic, dissolved, or in suspension. The treatment apparatus includes at least one mechanical filter used to filter the liquid solution, a separator device used to remove organic impurities and oils from the mechanically filtered liquid, and an electroextraction device that removes heavy metals from the separated liquid. After treatment within the treatment apparatus, metal ion concentrations within the liquid may be reduced to their residual values of less than 0.1 milligrams per liter. A Method of complex treatment of a contaminated liquid includes using the separator device to remove inorganic and non-conductive substances prior to electroextraction of metals to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment and provide a reusable liquid.

United States Patent Application 20100224497
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. September 9, 2010
________________________________________
DEVICE AND METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM LIQUIDS
Abstract
A volume-porous electrode is provided which increases effectiveness and production of electrochemical processes. The electrode is formed of a carbon, graphitic cotton wool, or from carbon composites configured to permit fluid flow through a volume of the electrode in three orthogonal directions. The electrode conducts an electrical charge directly from a power source, and also includes a conductive band connected to a surface of the electrode volume, whereby a high charge density is applied uniformly across the electrode volume. Apparatus and methods which employ the volume-porous electrode are disclosed for removal of metals from liquid solutions using electroextraction and electro-coagulation techniques, and for electrochemical modification of the pH level of a liquid.

Engineers at MIT have created a water-repellent nano-coating, from which droplets condensing vapor jump yourself. The paper was published in the journal Nano Letters, and its summary can be found on the website of the institute.

Established authors structured surface looks under the microscope as the lawn of the crystals of copper oxide. When applied to the appropriate coating it, its water-repellent properties become so pronounced that the drops of condensed steam on it almost kept.
Moreover, the merger of two smaller droplets released energy is enough to get a close drop herself jumped from the surface.

Engineers aim to create unusual surfaces could increase the thermal conductivity of the heat exchangers in the steam condensers. The fact that the use of this standard copper pipes on the surface film of water is rapidly formed, which prevents heat transfer.

The faster the liquid droplets are removed from the heat exchanger, the more efficient it is, so in recent years have spread heat exchangers with a pronounced hydrophobic surface.

The authors have shown that the new surface allows a third speed of heat transfer, even in comparison with the most advanced hydrophobic heat exchangers. Because these devices are used, including power plants, such efficiency gains can be considered very significant.

Earlier, another group of engineers (also of MIT) for the solution of increasing the speed of heat transfer used a similar approach.

Scientists have also created a hydrophobic surface micro-texture, but last version of this complex technology used photolithography rather than chemical treatment.

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