Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits, Jaroslav Vashchuk;
The need for innovative development of any society confronts today's innovation community challenge to teachers in effective technical universities in the preparation of specialists with high qualification , creativity, willing and able to creative activities.
Unfortunately the study of mandatory training courses teachers can not separate the students are capable of creative work and are not capable of creative work and to work with all equally, though it has long been proven that working creatively experts are only a small fraction of all workers
Various companies, including the innovative, even very bad to have all the specialists of innovation enthusiasts, there is a standard, be sure to tightly regulate the work that must be performed without fancy technology, extremely punctual and quality
Again, unfortunately, the teachers believe that professional mobility specialist - is, as a rule, ¬ novation Institute expert, a specialist creative and have the ability and skills of making innovations in their own and related fields of science, engineering and technology. The basic foundation of the skill level is high level of education in the field of Arts and Sciences, the special disciplines.
Is this true?
Possession of computer technologies, design techniques and retrieval, system engineering, methods enhance creative thinking, social value orientation suggests the engineer as a professional specialists.
During training in a technical college students must acquire the general professional competence related to the ability of independent ¬ but to acquire new knowledge, to use the natural sciences, mathematics ¬ cal and engineering knowledge to solve problems of innovative development.
Important are competence related to production and technological, organizational and management activities, planning it and ¬ experimentation and project developments. General cultural competence related to the ability to negotiate, establish contacts, to be proactive, find organizational and management decisions and take responsibility for them.
The desire for self-development, improve their skills and expertise, understanding the social significance of their profession, understanding the experience and willingness to change the profile of their pro ¬ fessional activities, to adapt to changes in the content ¬ tial social and professional activities are relevant for the future of ¬ specialist.
In fact, the question of training, during their school professional mobility specialist who can solve the pro ¬ fessional problems, design their own system of profes ¬ tion activities, ready for professional creativity.
Many teachers believe that while studying at the university is not enough to work out how a person ¬ orientation of adapting to the changing environment and the achievements of scientific and technical progress. Education, as many believe, should form a human creativity, the way ¬ isting conversion rate and creativity in the form of its existence, tools ¬ ment achievements in all spheres of human activity - at work, in science, in technology, in culture, in arts, management, and politics. The higher the rate of change in the world, the higher education requirements.
This assertion can not be accepted. First of all education should be education, that is, should give future specialist all major basic knowledge and a clear ability to use them, if at the time of training a person is not in possession of the basic skills and knowledge, to take away a part of his training time for innovative exercises, nothing good out of it - there will be no basic knowledge and will be a new inventor
Thus, the most important feature of engineering only after acquiring all the knowledge and skills in their application is its creative. Creativity is the process by human activity ¬ sequences, creating a qualitatively new material and spiritual values. But how do you do not want such a process can not be infinite. Unfortunately the future inventors often do not explain what any innovative idea to bring to the product and not always in the process generators of ideas can be effective
Creativity is the ability of a person arising out of taking out ¬ lyaemogo material reality to create knowledge-based regularity ¬ sion of the objective world a new reality, satisfying diverse needs of society. Types determined by the nature of creativity with ¬ zidatelnoy activities.
If we evaluate the results of the innovation process economic terms, it becomes clear that to maintain the innovation process requires certain commercial conditions and not always even the most gifted young engineer can get in such conditions, and even more to create an environment
So do not say that the level of education has created an innovative specialist, he is just happy some cases may be one of the components of the innovation success
We have already mentioned several times, based on the experience of the best technical universities in the U.S., that without the institution of innovative entrepreneurs (entrepreneur) is impossible to prepare innovative engineering professionals
Only after visiting teaching staff specialists innovative education entrepreneurs can offer advantages for talented young engineers
Obviously, to achieve high results in certain spheres of activity ¬ sion can not do everything that makes talking about people having a different level of creativity that is ability to be creative.
With this statement we can agree, but on one condition - if there is a high creative potential, his time and advance notice innovatsiolnny entrepreneur
Based on the classification proposed by teachers, we distinguish levels of creative ¬ velopment of personality that they have found among engineering students.
The initial level is manifested in the ability to analyze the situation of the subject ¬ tion with the aim of transforming it in the realization of the problems of life and property ¬ tion of experience in solving practical problems. A feature of this level YaV ¬ it possible rational ordering of knowledge, pragmatic view of the situation ¬ tion, reproductive character assignments.
Students at this level is difficult for the creative development of a new, unconventional look at the situation, to show the wide range of actions in the performance of problematic tasks. Alternative way of thinking is not a real factor for integration of knowledge in all academic disciplines. Students show not only that ¬ autonomy in decision-making. In this regard, it is necessary to organize and the right to direct alternative way of thinking, because the desire to think alternatively very common to lose the main idea
Average level of personal creative development manifested in the reflection of what I "can" and what I "want" in the understanding of the determinants of their own development, the ability to set goals and objectives for self-transformation and self-improvement. Psychological formation of this level are an adequate reflection of yourself, the ability to analyze their behavior, anticipate their consequences. Typically, this level involves creative ¬ cal translation of knowledge into real production.
The criteria for achieving this level of preparation in terms of production capacity are the staff themselves and effectively address emerging production problems. This raises the question of maximizing the integration of the educational process with the actual problem situations.
The high level of creative development allows to solve iso ¬ bretatelskom level complex problem tasks. The results of the expert are usually public, social resonance. Method ¬ sion to take technical decisions at this level, the ability to find information and educate themselves, the ability to communicate and persuade, sup ¬ ALIVE atmosphere of creativity in the team, understanding of contemporary issues, compliance with the rules of professional ethics - these are the qualities which are the basis for ¬ are creative, productive work of the graduate tech ¬ REFLECTION university.
People at this level both visionaries and pragmatists, they are autonomous and independent, flexible, effective, and emotionally stable. But the basic skills is an innovative, inventive approach. It is no accident the engineer in Latin means "quick-witted, sharp."
Perception of different levels of creative development and their identification are quite different in the countries - the heirs of the Soviet Union and the countries of the West, and especially the U.S., where it is highly prized ability of young talented inventors working productively with experienced entrepreneurs, relying more on their experience and connections than for inspiration and alternative thinking
In order to acquire a high professional status and the possibility of designing your professional future is important for students to achieve a high level of creative development. But the question is - how in a short period of university education can solve this problem.
In most cases, as practice shows, for the period of study in high school most of the students up to the primary, and at best - average. Final qualifying work, completing the process of education ¬ of the Technical University, is the real measure of a factor Institute ¬ integration of knowledge in all academic disciplines, autonomy in decision-making and the development of systems thinking. But the need to expand the range of teaching methods designed to develop creativity of students, teachers think so.
Basic question remains open - can be taught dropouts engineer, have not yet understood the basic foundations of innovative engineering techniques, with an expanded set of teaching methods
The simple answer to this question lies in the fact that the possibility of even a very capable and talented students are still very limited, and we think the most rational, first is better to give an opportunity to master the basic professional knowledge and only then you can go to a gradual and cautious commissioning process teaching methods innovative design and innovative development projects
Psychologists distinguish between two types of thinking: reproductive (convergent) and creative (divergent). Personality type with a predominance of convergent thinking ¬ tion relates to the intellectual, ready to meet the challenges of complex, but someone put it up and having a known technology solutions, and on the pre ¬ possession of divergence - the creativity, the ability to see and set goals that seeks to go beyond Within the set conditions.
In fact, every human being has both intellectual and creative abilities, but to varying degrees. As they grow, creative thinking, "dies." On ¬ overwhelming number of students conformity, they're afraid of, tend not to the original thought, but to the "chewed" and decomposed strictly "on the shelves" of information.
Conditions of uncertainty and variability of the creative solutions of problems ¬ frightens them. Creative, open-mindedness is not developed to the "closed", already set and having known technology the solution. Typically, inventive problem solver, poses the question: what happens when additional conditions make the obvious solution is not possible when the gra ¬ purse of traditional knowledge and skills are not enough?
With such mental operations as analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, classification, specification and abstraction occurs penetration ¬ ance of a problem situation, is the solution. The development of thinking operations are in daily educational process by addressing the educational and practical problems in the region new objective value of ¬ (the sciences, psychology, logic, technology, etc.).
In addition to this necessarily requires the knowledge and commercial insight, the development of which in most cases is a major factor in stimulating innovation by
To resolve the problem situations and tasks to mentally divide the races ¬ complex object into its component parts. Based on the analysis of many techniques eliminate existing contradictions. In the synthesis are merged into one part of a future system.
The above operation of thinking underlying these inventive methods, the method of trial and error (a way of developing new forms of behavior in problem situations), the method of test questions (with manure ¬ dyaschih issues to bring to the task.) Method synectics ("attack" WHO ¬ nikshey problem specialized groups of professionals with the use ¬ ization of different analogies and associations), the method of focal objects (search for new points of view on issues around associa ¬ tive number of properties of random and heuristic), etc.
Virtually all of the learning process in a technical college should be directed to the county ¬ formation of systems thinking, which is based on the variety of different operations ¬, forms and ways of thinking. Formation of systems thinking is possible through the inclusion of students in the project activity, which involves the updating of knowledge is not one but a number of educational pre ¬ stamps, at first glance do not have in common with each other.
Experience and practice have shown that the best inventions are created at the intersection of disciplines, so one of the things in an innovative training to become an innovative method of forming the integration of innovative compositions
As a vivid example should bring Albert Einstein's assertion that many discoveries in physics helped him make heroes of FM Dostoevsky - namely, the analysis of their experiences. Ways to solve problems of life ¬ United found FM Dostoevsky, in fiction, of ¬ is known physicist was able to use to solve problems in physics, which are further embodied in the theory of relativity.
The curricula of most technical universities are no objects of creative fields. This is related to the educational policy of the institution, the eternal opposition of "poets and physicists." These and many other reasons do not allow as a separate discipline issues related to the practical realization of the obtained theoretical ¬ cal knowledge, creativity and systems thinking, imagination, analysis and synthesis of learning, innovation management, methods of post ¬ situation and the solution of problems.
In the educational process including modern technology the solution to the lack of information on the initial ¬ actively used today by large companies to find innovative solutions - Stanford methodology design thinking. The technique is to divide the whole problem-solving process to determine ¬ lennye short stages that a group of students to perform smoothly, on time, often in a "brainstorming" is born two or three dozen ideas for a few minutes.
The performance of these methods to find solutions is much higher than an unorganized group work. For the student with the development of systemic thinking, accustomed to interdisciplinary thinking ¬ ly, it is of interest to develop a draft proposal solving a professional task, which is based on the solution, not only pro ¬ duction, but also social problems. It is this category of students is the engine of innovation, both at work and in life.
The idea of a comprehensive training is not new. Another famous French mate ¬ matic, philosopher, physicist and physiologist René Descartes noted, "All science ¬ so interconnected that it is easier to study them all at once, rather than any one of them separately from the rest."
There are skills that can form the subject areas of ¬ sensible discipline. The same elements of knowledge in a modified form ¬ Wann come in different subject areas. In this system knowledge based method of multi-dimensional learning, the main principle of which is the establishment of al-associative connections study material and the type of project with other subject areas, which allows to solve practical problems within a particular discipline.
The method of multi-dimensional if it is combined with the techniques of integrative compositionality, expanding professional horizons of students and determines their mobility in their future careers. In a fast dynamic profession that requires a high level of mobility distributions of professional knowledge, based on interdisciplinary ¬ bathroom ideas and practical applicability ¬ STI mathematical models of physical, chemical, biological and information ¬ mation of laws, regulations, principles and effects, and is an important component ¬ nents qualifying characteristics of a specialist.
High level of education, advanced thinking skills to enable you to find the best ¬ way out. Spontaneous, neuprav ¬ lyaemoe, methodologically weak thinking leads to multiple variants, making a complex problem.
Graduate of a technical college because of the specific professional activities always have to work in a situation of uncertainty. In order to reduce the time to find the optimal ¬ mal ways of inventive problem solving methods exist manage ¬ tion creative thinking.
The most efficient of the existing theories ¬ elliptic bases is the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ). The purpose of TRIZ (Altshuller GS) is the formation of productive thinking, Sun ¬ power of the creative personality, prepared to solve complex problems in various areas. The theory of inventive problem solving improve ¬ decreases as the level of inventions, to reduce the uncertainty of the situation, taking out those elements of chance and blind search of variants.
In order to develop new ideas, solutions and new forms and ways of life and development groups, as well as new plants, products, understanding, skills, participants ¬ nicknames, realistic ways to overcome difficulties, behavioral skills in emergency situations should be used in teaching Institute ¬ an innovation game .
It provides three types of results: the new content, new information (ideas, detailed designs, strategic programs, etc.), a new group, the community (the consolidated group members carrier of new information, new content, new skills and life);
The main effect of the game is a rotation ¬ company of consciousness of participants from the traditional way of thinking and innovative ¬ Nome. Man released from innate fear of change, of the prejudices that hinder innovation and creative thinking.
In carrying out innovative games use a number of special techniques, among which are: raspredmechivanie (organization of a conflict of positions of the players and discuss the problems with the "foreign" products), pro ¬ blematizatsiyu (search bases, root causes underlying hampered ¬ tions) goal-setting, self-determination (fixing its own position in the common space of game), reflection (the ability to look at what is happening as if from the outside and "see" yourself, your mind, your thinking and actions of others), schematization and positional analysis.
Innovative game focuses on diverse elaborate WHO ¬ sible solutions for the situation in the form of design for use ¬ ization techniques, such as focused discussions (meetings in the form of dis ¬ cussions), "brainstorming" (generation and saying all sorts of ideas for parties to put problem) "brainstorming contrary"
For example in the U.S. is often replaced by the innovative game computer modeling
It is especially effective when the family of design software Solid Works
In comparison with the computer simulation, which is the most effective way of individual training, and any other versions, such as (the criticism of the proposed ideas), the method of the questionnaire (the list of questions for you ¬ developing new solutions), the method of random associations (continuous chain ¬ ka ideas for solutions problems), the heuristic method (creating speculation, prediction and selection of possible solutions based on intuition, logical reasoning and previous experience), the dream of the impossible (for ¬ dreams can push to a whole new, original ideas) do not make it competitive.
Renowned film actor and director Charlie Chaplin in connection with the description of creative ¬ Bologna process said: "I am often asked how the idea for a particular film. I still can not exhaustively answer this question. From year ¬ E, I realized that ideas come when they are looking for a passionate, the consciousness transformation ¬ schaetsya the sensitive device, ready to fix any push Pobuzhzha ¬ giving fantasy - and then the music and the sunset can give an idea. "
In anticipation of projected changes in the science and technology of production is an issue of public recognition of the importance of the need to change in the principles, methods, contents, forms and technologies relating to the construction of a system of training in a technical college, but to shape approaches to the choice of methods and programs for teaching the fundamentals of innovative design to the inventors, - familiar with the latest techniques and tools of innovation.
To maintain competitiveness ¬ sion now and in the near future graduates of technical uni ¬ versity should have a high level of skills, innovative thinking, professional mobility and relevant commercial motivation.