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The innovative idea of using hydrogen as a fuel and challenges in implementing these ideas

Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits

Today, no one would dispute the well-known fact about the efficiency of hydrogen as a fuel
From time to time there are publications on this area of technology, setting out all the new versions of making and using hydrogen as a fuel and its equivalents
Features burning oxy-hydrogen gas based hydrogen is also frequently discussed and are the basis of many of the thermodynamic fuel projects
Consider one of the versions of the application of hydrogen fuel in power plants
In one of my previous publications, entitled "Hybrid Energy» - author of this publication has predicted the emergence of so-called "hybrid" power plants, which will be combined into a single process flow is very different energy sources - for example, a nuclear reactor and coal gasifier.
The cause of these "hybrids" will be a tendency to further increase the price of hydrocarbon energy. Largely because of the same reason and will power new types, which are also in a sense, can be called "hybrid." As these new power plants will be used for the work of the technological principles of some of the other known types of power plants that still have not been used in a process chain.
For example, now the European Union is very actively trying to introduce combined-cycle power plant. The principle of operation of steam and gas power stations is that natural or associated gas is first burned in a gas turbine, the rotating electric generator. The exhaust from the gas turbine exhaust gas is directed to a steam boiler which supplies steam turbine rotates the generator. It is as if the double use of the heat of combustion gas. The best examples of combined cycle power plants reach 55% efficiency (coefficient of performance) the conversion of heat of combustion of gaseous fuel into electrical energy. Compare that with the efficiency of the best power plants, reaching only 35%.
But may soon be power, also works on gas, but that will reach far more efficiency than the combined cycle power plant.
It is known that the best efficiency of the conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy explosion has so-called "explosive mixture" (a mixture of combustible gas and air in an ideal ratio.) The efficiency of the "explosive mixture" is 80%. But until now, scientists and engineers are not able to "tame" the "explosive mix."
This can be done by combining with water turbine and "explosive mix." Here's a rough description of the plant, which will work on the conversion of thermal energy "explosive mixture" into electrical energy using turbines.
In a large basin filled with water, will be submerged several large spheres made of a very durable material. In these areas, too, will be in the water, and they will be connected to a water pipe that will lead to a special storage pool, located at a height of several tens of meters above the pool, which will be located areas.
In areas through special valves will alternately fed portion of the finished "explosive mixture" of the fuel gas and air. Special spark device, similar to a car candle, "explosive mixture" will be undermined. The explosion will be forced out of certain areas of the amount of water on the above will be thrown into the water supply at a height of ten meters storage pool. Plumbing will be equipped with a special valve that does not allow the water to flow back out of the storage pool in the area.
After the explosion, "explosive mixture" through a special valve exhaust gases from the explosion will play off the outside of the sphere, and at the same time through another valve in the area of the pool will come to replace the amount of water displaced by the previous explosion. Again in the area will be served portion of "explosive mixture" and the cycle will repeat again.
Areas of work at a time, throwing into the storage pool portions of water. A retention basin of water will be supplied from a height of several tens of meters in the water turbine, which will rotate the generator. Turbine will be located on the pool level, which will be located areas, and coming after the turbines the water will be constantly nourished the water level in the pool to compensate for the water to climb into the sphere.
In short, we describe power like the internal combustion engine, but is used instead of pistons, connecting rods, propeller shaft and other mechanical parts of ordinary water circulating in the hydraulic system described above.
The water circulating in the hydraulic system, and will serve to remove the unused heat or cooling (as a "refrigerator" in a classic case of a heat engine) by evaporation of water from the primary mirror and the storage pools. Naturally, the loss of evaporated water is compensated by feeding outside.
Potential efficiency predicted "hybrid" power plant to be very high. The efficiency of the "explosive mixture" - 0.8 (80%) multiplied by the efficiency of the turbine - 0.95 (95%) = 0, 76, or 76%. Almost one and a half times more than the efficiency of the combined cycle power plant (55%).

However, there is the problem of replacement of small power plants that supply remote or unconnected to electricity consumers. Generally, these power plants now operate from internal combustion engines, which are used as fuel, liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. A liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons rapidly becoming more expensive, and, most importantly, will go up the foreseeable future.
As predicted mini electrical power stations, which should come to replace the current mini power stations that use internal combustion engines will also be used turbines. Plus one fairly well-known effect, familiar to almost everyone who tries to cook his own food in his kitchen.
This refers to the effect of foaming. For example, you have a pot on the stove is, which has been repeatedly boiled dumplings - you are again bringing the water in the saucepan to a boil in order to throw a new batch of ravioli. But who made this process know - to watch out for the water in the saucepan. At any point in a boiling water will climb out of the pan, especially if it is covered with a lid, abundant foam "cap" and it will appear on your plate.
This one's just described "foam effect" will be used in the forecast type of "hybrid" mini electrical power stations. It will consist of a high cylindrical container, the bottom of which will be a heater that runs on any type of fuel, and even from the hot flue gases. A sort of a large saucepan.
Filled with high cylindrical container is water, which must be dissolved a reagent dramatically increases foam when heated. Water must be continuously transformed into foam, which will rise to a high cylindrical tank overflow and accumulate in a special container, such as a small retention basin. A retention basin of water will be supplied to water turbine, located at the bottom of a cylindrical tank heated. After the turbine water should return to the cylindrical container that then turn into a foam, and go to the storage pool.
That is, the process is very simple and you can use any kind of fuel.
The application of hydrogen as a fuel in fact there are many problems
Mixing hydrogen with oxygen is the main cause combustion or explosion, so its exclusion is a priority. Air from entering the hydrogen communications liquefier in particular, can be caused by residual air before filling with hydrogen or air leaks from the atmosphere by lowering the suction pressure to the compressor. Filling must precede its evacuation vacuum pump and then filled with nitrogen, and only after that can replace nitrogen with hydrogen

The use of hydrogen as a fuel can be not only a straight line, and can have many forms, excluding only the burning of hydrogen, and applying the exclusive properties of hydrogen in a more complex and integrated thermodynamic complex systems
In this connection, of great interest is the professional publication - Hydrogen storage technology power, author Anatoly Sozanskogo
Offer website can have a great future in addressing the major pain points associated with the required level of security of the energy system
Developing the idea and the idea inherent in the publication, it is interesting to turn to the latest technology, aimed at the formation of industrial high-performance components that make up the so-called infrastructure of hydrogen-generating systems
Let's start with the fact that American engineers have created a transparent and flexible ionistor that can be a source of food for the next generation of mobile devices. The paper was published in the journal Scientific Reports, and its summary can be read at Northwestern University.
At the heart of the new device - thin carbon films with unusual shapes. They have a deeply textured surface in the form of so-called "carbon nanochashek." Thanks to such texture increases the contact surface between the film, which acts as an electrode, and "filler" - polymer electrolyte.
To demonstrate the efficiency of technology to create a new class of power sources, the authors have created a small prototype. In the reducible video engineers use it to power the LED, place the device on top of the screen smartphone. We see that very well ionistor transmits light, although not entirely clear. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that the battery can be sginat and it does not change its electrical performance.
Ionistor (or supercapacitors) are electrical devices in a sense intermediate between the classical chemical capacitors and batteries. As the plates of a ionistor act ions at the boundary layers eletkroda and electrolyte. Than the area of the border, the greater the capacity of the device. The benefits include high ionistor charging rate and a low degradation even after thousands of cycles.
The new development engineers can be useful to create a fully transparent electronic devices. Technology of many other components of these devices, such as touch panels and screens already exist.

Particularly interesting application of the latest technologies offered by Anatoly Sozanskim hydrogen technology accumulation of electricity
So chemists from the University of Rochester have created a long-lived record system for hydrogen production using the energy of sunlight. The work of scientists published in the journal Science, and its summary retells ScienceNow.
Complexity of using solar energy for the direct synthesis of hydrogen gas is that most of the organic dyes that are used for this, quickly destroyed. Therefore, the authors decided to ask the semiconductor nanocrystals, which are also able to absorb light of a particular wavelength (their quantum properties are determined by the size), but it is much more stable.
At the basis of this system are nanocrystals of cadmium selenide (CdSe), and nickel ions, which catalyze the direct synthesis of molecular hydrogen. Nickel ions are in an aqueous solution, so in order to put to the same nanocrystals, the authors have put on them hydrophilic coating of dihydrolipoic acid. The substance is chosen so as to ensure the dissolution of solid nanoparticles, but it does not envelop them completely, as required for secure contact between the crystals and the solution.
As a result, scientists have a pretty efficient system, in which every third absorbed quantum used for hydrogen production. Each nanoparticle produced about 7000 molecules of hydrogen per hour, and the process could continue for several weeks.
Hydrogen is often seen as a promising replacement of fossil fuels as an energy storage. Its combustion results in the formation of a single substance - water. However, the production of hydrogen by hydrolysis, and storage of today are very serious technical difficulties.
Besides this group of scientists from different countries established a mechanism that defines the property of magnesium nanoparticles give hydrogen storage. Press release of the work published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, presented on the website of the University of Uppsala.
Hydrogen is a promising fuel that can replace traditional carbon energy sources. The main task for today is to develop a material that is able to store large amounts of hydrogen at the same time will be able to easily give. Scientists have created a number of materials that are more or less satisfy these requirements: for example, organic sponge or a "layer cake" of calcium and lithium. One of the popular options are metals and metal hydrides.
In this study, the researchers worked with nanoparticles of magnesium hydride that can "absorb" up to 7.7 per cent in the weight ratio of hydrogen. To absorb the impact or hydrogen must be added to the nanoparticles catalysts - substances that "trigger" these processes.
One of the theories that explain the mechanism of the catalysts was the theory of shuttles. According to this hypothesis, the catalyst molecule - in this case, titanium, vanadium, iron and nickel - hydrogen is transferred to itself from the material surface inside and vice versa. Scientists from the University of Uppsala, and colleagues built a computer model that explains the process of moving at the molecular level. Understanding the catalysts may be useful for the development of new and improvement of already existing methods of hydrogen storage.
The appeal of hydrogen as an energy source is determined by several factors. First, it is one of the most abundant elements on Earth, and second, when it is formed using water, not a danger to the ecology of the planet. The energy released by the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen.
Recently, carbon and songs based on it more and more are beginning to win the minds of researchers
Since carbon nanotubes can bring the use of hydrogen as a household fuel. Researchers from the University of North Carolina devised a way to use them to decompose water into simpler substances at a much lower temperature than envisaged earlier technology, reports
To catalyze the decomposition, the researchers used nanotubes with defects. Carbon cylinders with a diameter of a few nanometers are usually composed of a network of regular hexagons with atoms at the vertices, but the real structure often deviates from the ideal. "Holes" in the lattice, it is convenient to trap water molecules, which are then destroyed. Computer experiments have shown how such a reaction will occur. Thermal lattice vibrations transmitted molecule attached to it, then there is a break chemical bonds.
The nanotubes are different from the rest of the catalysts that the reaction to their involvement takes place at temperatures below a thousand degrees Celsius. Scientists claim that this will be spent half the energy. So far, however, there is the reactor where hydrogen could be produced by a new scheme in industrial quantities.

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