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Algorithmic component in the complex innovation projects by analyzing the development of technologies for modifying fuel blends, including the use of biofuels to modify (part one)

Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits, Jaroslav Vashchuk

As the statistics of innovative projects, an increasing impact on the commercial value and the effectiveness of these projects has algorithmic component, including the logistics of the entire innovation process, from formulation and synthesis of innovative ideas and complete the process of integration in specific industrial and commercial structures
Because we have experience and technological and commercial best practices on the most popular technologies today modifying fuel blends, offer an example of this group consider algorithmization innovative projects
At present, according to the information that can be obtained from public sources, there is a tendency modification and upgrading of internal combustion engines in areas related to the improvement of systems for automatic control of the process flow and combustion;
In studies involving the use of alternative fuels, such as ethanol or methanol, is clearly emerging problem with mixing ethanol, methanol, and gasoline or ethanol, methanol and diesel fuel;
More than a century problem with the system adopted by the mechanical conversion of linear motion to rotation not being examined or treated in the local aspects, are of fundamental importance to the solution of the problem as a whole, it is a mechanical problem consume 50% of the effectiveness of any internal combustion engine;
In our creative collaboration has filed patent applications that address the complex issues described above.

United States Patent Application 20110030827
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. February 10, 2011
The current disclosure relates to a new fluid composite, a device for producing the fluid composite, and a method of production therewith, and more specifically a fluid composite made of a fuel and its oxidant for burning as part of different systems such as fuel burners, where the fluid composite after a stage of intense molecular between a controlled flow of a liquid such as fuel and a faster flow of compressed highly directional gas such as air results in the creation of a three dimensional matrix of small hallow spheres each made of a layer of fuel around a volume of pressurized gas. In an alternate embodiment, external conditions such as inline pressure warps the spherical cells into a network of oblong shape cells where pressurized air is used as part of the combustion process. In yet another embodiment, additional gas such as air is added via a second inlet to increase the proportion of oxidant to carburant as part of the mixture.
Everyone knows that, and ethanol and methanol after mixing bring the mixture water - ethanol over methanol is less, but discard its presence can not be discounted and therefore emulsification becomes extremely important process:

United States Patent Application 20120085428
Kind Code A1
Livshits; David; et al. April 12, 2012
The invention relates to a fluid composite, a device for producing the fluid composite, and a system for producing an aerated fluid composite therewith, and more specifically a fluid composite made of a fuel and its oxidant for burning as part of different systems such as fuel burners or combustion chambers and the like. The invention also relates to an emulsion, an apparatus for producing an emulsion, a system for producing an emulsion with the apparatus for producing the emulsion, a method for producing a dynamic preparation with the emulsion, and more specifically to a new type of a stable liquid / liquid emulsion in the field of colloidal chemistry, such as a water / fuel or fuel / fuel emulsion for all spheres of industry.

The problem of mixing ethanol and gasoline at gas stations completely solved by the invention, for which there is a prototype built to churning butter, but the same can be used to prototype ideas and presentation solution mixing and turning the mixture into a stable emulsion when mixed fuel components, such as diesel fuel and various kinds of industrial alcohol, including glycerin, ethanol, gasoline, and many others, including those with inorganic origin, application for this invention is filed in the last year, in March;
In addition to all known publications of the various systems and methods of automatic control systems, we offer a non-contact detection of the real state of the fuel mixture, including its air saturation level and the level and nature of the foam fuel mixture before it is injected or fed to the high pressure fuel pump , as is the case of diesel engines, the application for an invention filed in the past year;
Our creative team proposed a solution to mechanical problems in all types of internal combustion engines by changing the design of the mechanism of the conversion of linear motion to rotary motion, without any changes to the fuel system of an internal combustion engine, an application for an invention filed in April of last year;
All of these technologies can be applied in the performance of a number of basic conditions
To ensure timely and complete combustion in a short period of time the fuel must meet the following requirements:

1) have good pumpability, to ensure reliable operation of the high pressure fuel pump (at optimum viscosity 2.6 mm2 / s at 20 ° C), good low-temperature properties, the lack of mechanical impurities and water;

2) to provide the desired spray pattern, good mixing and evaporation, this fuel must have an optimal viscosity and specific grain size distribution;

3), the required flammability, easy to carry out a cold start, a smooth increase in pressure and complete smokeless combustion (these properties depend on the chemical composition and fraction of fuel, as well as viscosity, chemical composition of the fuel is estimated cetane number, which characterizes the flammability of the main index of motor fuel properties);

4) did not cause an increased formation of sludge and other deposits on the valves, rings, pistons, coking needle spray (the tendency of fuel to the nagara depends on the chemical and fractional composition, viscosity, solids and water);

5) does not contain corrosive products (corrosive properties of fuel depends on the presence of mineral and organic acids, sulfur compounds, and water);
6) may have a higher heating value;

7) have a high pumpability fuel with minimum leakage through gaps in the plunger pairs with minimum wear of friction pairs.
It used to be that the fuel for high-speed motors must be at 20 ° C, the viscosity of at least 5 mm 2 / s. Studies have shown that the fuel with a viscosity of up to 2 mm 2 / s at 20 SS lubricates fuel injection equipment. Minimum viscosity depends on the injection pressure and other design decisions. With the increase in viscosity of the fuel injection pressure can be increased by 6-10 times.
(The use of technology for integrated activation, in which water is mixed with diesel fuel to form a stable emulsion which is then mixed with vozhdushnymi bubbles, in which the internal pressure in the bubbles is from 10 to 20 bar, can almost halve the required pressure, which reduces the viscosity of fuel mixture in 3 - 5 times in addition admixture 10% water and 8 to 12% of the air in the same proportion reduces the viscosity of the original fuel mixture)
Based on the research and operational tests, the following values of the viscosity of fuel at 20 ° C for high-speed diesel engines: the summer - 3.0-8.0 mm 2 / s in the winter - 2,2-6,0 mm2 / s, for a severe Arctic climate - 1.5-4 mm 2 / s.
Pumpability fuel depends on its low-temperature properties that affect the mobility of the fuel at low temperatures. Low-temperature properties are determined cloud point, the onset of crystallization and solidification.
Cloud point consider the temperature at which the phase homogeneity of the fuel is lost. It begins to thicken due to the release of tiny droplets of water, solid hydrocarbons or microscopic ice crystals.
The temperature at which the first crystals appear visible to the naked eye, is the temperature of crystallization.
Temperature of the complete loss of mobility is called the freezing temperature.
(For the proposed technology mix pour point is lowered proportionally percentage of air and water in the mixture, and, in addition, the high level of turbulence mixture also helps to reduce the pour point)
Mechanical impurities in the fuel standard does not provide for (not allowed). Fuel contaminated non-compliance with rules of transportation, storage and refueling. The most harmful quartzites alumina, because they have high hardness. Precision pair of fuel pumps have clearance 1.5-3.0 mm, so even a small percentage of solids leads to significant abrasion.
(Using the proposed technology abrasives hit the fuel pump is eliminated, thanks to a special system of capillary channels in the device for a complex activation of diesel)
This fuel is more or less constant in the dissolved state water. Its concentration depends on the ambient temperature. The solubility of water in the fuel 10 5 kg / kg. Especially frustrating presence emulsion of water at low temperatures. In this case, the ice crystals clogged cleaning system and disrupted motor. Negative impacts on water fuel system, especially in the high-pressure pump and injectors. It contributes to the appearance of corrosion surfaces precision steam and coking spray nozzles.
(Proposed the formation of ice crystals technology is impossible, and in addition the mixture may have a special section of the heat that eliminates ice crystals, reduces or eliminates corrosion and the formation of coke in the injector nozzles)
Desired spray and mixture formation and evaporation of the fuel become critical in determining the course of the working process as a whole, its effectiveness and efficiency.
Portion of fuel metered high-pressure pump is injected into the combustion chamber in a tight, strongly swirling heated air. At some distance from the nozzle jet nozzles breaks into droplets, forming a flame sprayed fuel. The total number of drops up to several million, and their size varies from 50 to 150 microns. Distribution of the drops in the number and size of very uneven. The quality of fuel atomization is characterized by the number and size of drops, length, width, and angle of the cone spray pattern.
Drop of fuel introduced into the hot air does not ignite instantly. When ignited, the evaporation process is more intense due to the high temperatures in the combustion process. Along with the acceleration of evaporation in this moment there is a slowdown, because there are products of combustion, hampering supply of oxygen to the fuel evaporates. This fact makes it necessary to keep the workflow in a diesel engine with some excess air.
(Proposed technology can provide the required excess air and high uniformity of air distribution in the amount of fuel mixture)
Large heterogeneity fuel mixture in the combustion chamber is responsible for some of the advantages and disadvantages of diesel engines. An important advantage is that the diesel engine can be greatly impoverish the working mixture. This allows you to change the power only through the fuel system. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the mixture - a significant disadvantage of diesel engines because it is impossible to achieve complete combustion and smokeless.
(Proposed technology provides a highly homogeneous mixture, which can be expressed by the size of air bubbles produced by activating - 20 micrometers)
The process of mixing affects the viscosity of fuel, increase which leads to a deterioration of atomization and evaporation of fuel. At high viscosity large drops increase the length of the torch and hit the wall, which greatly impairs the process of mixing, and at a low viscosity fuel torch is shortened and the combustion chamber is not fully used.
(Proposed technology provides a particle size in 3 - 5 microns, which increases combustion efficiency, reduced viscosity of the mixture in proportion to percentage of impurities and the mixture is formed with an energy advantage effect Bernoulli, which improves the process)
Fractional composition of diesel fuel is estimated final boiling point: the summer - 360 ° C, winter - 340 ° C, the Arctic - 330 ° C.
The complex processes of combustion and mixing fuel engines are fast in a very short period of time, about 10 times faster than gasoline engines, with the same speed.
Combustion rate depends on many factors: pressure and temperature of the compressed air, the concentration of fuel vapor in the air, the chemical composition, the quality of atomization and fuel volatility.
At a delay of subsequent ignition of the fuel combustion process is very intense. She could hear the characteristic knocking engine (similar to the detonation, but the causes are different).
All other things being equal, the reduction in the ignition delay results in a more gradual change in pressure, ie a smooth-running engine. However, the excessive reduction of this period reduces the efficiency of combustion. The process begins as soon as the fuel, much of which is supplied to the combustion products. Fuel droplets are then rapidly evaporate before reaching the zones chamber in which oxygen is not used. The process of mixing is deteriorating, falling output and engine efficiency.
To ensure the normal combustion process should be applied fuel having optimum ignition delay period. Flammability of fuel is estimated cetane number. Numerically, the cetane number of diesel fuel equal percentage (by volume) of cetane in a mixture of alpha-methylnaphthalene, which by the nature of combustion (ignition) is equivalent to the test fuel. Cetane number is determined by three methods: the critical compression, ignition lag and coincidentally outbreaks.
Diesel fuel must have a cetane number in the range of 45-50 in winter and 40-45 in summer. Cetane number is the starting properties of diesel fuels, slightly different on the fractional composition.
When operating the diesel engine is very important to establish the optimum angle of injection of fuel. At a high angle of lead in fuel is not hot air, which increases the ignition delay period and the rigidity of work. Fuel thus can burn up to top dead center, which leads to loss of power, as it creates pressure. With much of the delay of the injection of fuel is burned in the line extension, causing loss of power, incomplete combustion, reduced engine efficiency.
Carbonization in high-speed diesel engines, leading to an overheating engine, coking injector atomization of fuel deterioration. Increased accumulation of carbon promotes incomplete combustion of the fuel, the availability of the fuel complex macromolecular substances and impurities. On the accumulation of tar significantly affect the stability of fuel. Indicators of the quality of diesel fuel, affecting carbon formation and regulated standards, the following: the number of coke, tar, ash, solids and sulfur compounds. Sulfur contained in the fuel, not only affects the weight of the resulting sludge, but also on its properties. Sulphur compounds accumulate in Nagar, increase its density.
Corrosion properties of diesel fuel sulfur content are conditioned, water-soluble acids and bases, as well as water. The presence of sulfur compounds in the fuel test polished plate of electrolytic copper of size 10 × 25 mm. This plate is immersed in a porcelain cup with the fuel, which is placed in an oven at 50 ° C and held there 2-3 hours on a plate appearance of dark brown, gray or black film indicates the presence in the fuel of active sulfur compounds.
Cause corrosion of parts in the main sulfur compounds. Particularly strong liquid corrosion evident in the cold season when starting conditions. Increasing fuel sulfur from 0.2 to 0.5% increases the wear of the cylinder group by 25-30%, to 1% - 2 times. To reduce sulfur corrosion in the fuel additive is added. The most common - zinc naphthenate, which is added to the fuel (0.25-0.30% of the mass of fuel).
(Proposed technology eliminates the presence of sulfur compounds in the mixture, and if necessary can increase the temperature of which is 80 - 85% reduction in corrosion of diesel engine)
The calorific value of diesel fuel is 42,705 kJ / kg.

Aspects of the phenomena of corrosion and corrosion processes in structural elements of diesel engines using the fuel mixture in which diesel fuel is mixed with compressed air
When mixing diesel fuel with compressed air, no water, corrosion processes are excluded in the previous case;

(Proposed technique has two main versions, the first version - intensive mixing diesel fuel with water and then the mixture evenly homogeneous mixing diesel fuel with water with compressed air from mixing with the compressed air in the mixture has a uniform distribution on its volume air bubbles with a diameter of 20 micrometers, with an internal pressure of 20 bar, and each of the bubbles has a shell thickness of 20 micrometers, consisting of emulsion composition which has 92% of diesel fuel and 8% water after injection into the combustion mixture is sprayed onto the particles in the 3 - 5 micrometers, and diesel fuel and oxidant are the environment in which the organic fuel cell is uniformly distributed between the oxidant, helping ignite at lower temperatures and creates an equivalent cetane number 45 - 50;
The second version of the technology is the only mixing diesel fuel with compressed air and, while maintaining the conditions for the first version of the technology, fuel mixture and ignition equivalent cetane number, keep the quality as in the first version;)

To be continued ....


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