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Andrew ( Gabreal )Livshits and his innovative interpretation of the resonant impedance measurement technology

Alex Leshetz - RF Test expert of Texas Instruments

Andrew ( Gabreal ) Livshits proposes the use of his invented Impedance Resonance Technology (IRT) for use in monitoring of chemicals and metals in water.

IRT uses non-contact probing of a sample under test by harmonic electromagnetic fields. To find the optimal field frequencies at which IRT will operate, uses a modified methodology of Impedance Spectroscopy (IS).

The optimal frequencies of the sensor are frequencies at which the impedance of the element or chemical of interest has the strongest dependence on its concentration. The found frequencies will be used for designing the IRT sensors with the use of developed by him proprietary software.

IRT uses a proprietary data processing algorithm that delivers non-contact real time measuring results with superior sensitivity and accuracy at speeds of 10 to 500 measurements per second. The projected device will have no consumables, low energy consumption and could be inserted in water line.

Devices that take electrolytic conductivity measurements have extensive application in chemical and biological processes such as water purification, electroplating and etc.

World market offers great deal of different devices for measuring one or more of liquids and water quality indicators.

The existing spectrum of measuring devices can be split on two categories: devices which measure using immersion and devices which demand that liquids’ sample to be placed inside it. In both cases means direct contact between water and device.

Andrew ( Gabreal ) Livshits offers non-contact flow-through conductivity sensor for high purity measurement. The proposed electrode-less conductivity sensor features patent-pending technology for highly accurate real-time conductivity monitoring reducing operational and maintenance costs.

The offered product consists of a resonance sensor configured to external mounting on any pipeline for continues monitoring of conductivity of liquids inside the pipe without contact; the sensor is connected by cable or wirelessly to controller of the pipeline; dimension of pipeline made of various nonconductive materials could vary from capillary tubes and up to 4” in diameter tubes with ring like resonance sensor and from 4 inches and up in diameter, a resonance sensor consists of multiple sensors that work simultaneously to cover entire surface of pipeline.

The idea of electrode-less liquid monitoring device based of Resonance Sensing Technology, RST. A solenoid embraces a pipe with fluid to be explored which either rests or flows is a key component of the liquid quality monitoring device. The solenoid is in condition of electro-magnetic resonance.

A system’s controller consists of swiping generator and data acquisition card able to conduct dozens measurements per second.

Dielectric spectroscopy measures water tumbling and can detect water quantitatively in different clusters if they are held by different average hydrogen bond strengths.

The dielectric loss is determined over a wide frequency range (kHz-GHz).

Proposed method uses abnormality of water dielectric permeability (ε > 80) at electromagnetic wave range frequencies 10 -100 MHz and it strong dependence of aforementioned value from concentration of impurities

Frequency of the resonance is shifted, if water introduces into LC oscillating circuit under resonance conditions. Level of the shift depends on impurities concentration.

Dielectric losses of water strongly depend of small quantities of impurities concentration. Even impurity concentration in the region 0 – 35 ppt (parts per trillion) at 10 -100 MHz electromagnetic wave range frequencies decreases on the value up to 10%.

Effect is much stronger, if impurities have paramagnetic nature. It is important for heavy metals and their salts concentration control.

Water quality RST-sensor minimal configuration

Block Scheme

To data acquisition unit

The minimal configuration is the simplest water quality RST-sensor. The sensor uses fixed harmonic frequency and one parameter that can be measured is amplitude.

In this case while setting in operation harmonic oscillator frequency had to be adjusted in etalon water presence so as RST-resonant circuit would be in resonance.

Every water quality deviation will cause the amplitude changing. The changing can be registered by data acquisition unit.

Two parameter water quality RST-sensor configuration

Block Scheme

To data acquisition unit

This configuration is more sophisticated. The RST-sensor can register changing of two resonant circuit parameters: resonant frequency and amplitude. In this case there is occasion to define what kind of water quality deviation has happened. For instance, NaCl or NaHCO3 concentration increasing causes substantial resonant frequency shift. Amplitude and resonant frequency changing can be registered by data acquisition unit and then analyzed by data processing system.

In case of the data acquisition unit is situate far from the rectifier, then an amplifier should be included between them. These two kinds of RST-sensors (see above) can be aggregated in various type networks. After analog-to-digital converting information from RST-sensors can be transferred using all kinds of wire-line or wireless networks to generate alarm notification and analyze data.

The experiments show possibility of building sensing device that can reliably differentiate mercury in water at level 0.1 ppb.

This new technology is generally very impressed and innovative .

But I would like to draw attention to the Shielding true test and improve the accuracy of measurements by means of computing Shield Effectiveness by geometrical forms of existing pipes on described sensors.

According to my calculation of these forms using certain formulas will lead us to improving accuracy of data obtaining process in several orders. In some cases, the impact of Shielding can be critical and the data obtained according this technology can not be recovered. This phenomenon can occur when frequency of the sensor signal and external interference is the same.

There are two types of Electromagnetic leakage. First type – thickness of hole is much smaller than the diameter or any other of the longest dimension and the second type - thickness of the hole is much larger than the diameter or any other geometric value of the longest holes.

I conducted multiple experiments which prove that if you use Electromagnetic leakage calculations on these two types, is possible to achieve Electro-magnetic Shielding value approximately 100-120dB,

the following value can provide almost 100 percent of Shielding.

Also in the development these geometric forms for Shielding. It must be remembered that the maximum Electromagnetic leakage occurs from the holes with a significant length in relation to the thickness of the holes.

Following is the Example of implementation of said additions and recommendations to the technologies in absolutely real Patent Application :

United States Patent Application 20120029845
Kind Code A1
Flider; Gennadiy ; et al. February 2, 2012



According to some embodiments, an apparatus and method are provided for detecting the composition of a fluid. An alternating electromagnetic field may be applied to the fluid and distortions in the electromagnetic field are compared with predetermined, expected distortion "signatures" for particular components at particular concentrations. The presence and concentration of the components in the fluid may be detected by detecting these distortion signatures.

Inventors: Flider; Gennadiy; (San Francisco, CA) ; Livschits; Gabreal; (San Francisco, CA)
Serial No.: 154280
Series Code: 13
Filed: June 6, 2011

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