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The modular structure of biological systems and their prediction in the Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving

Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits

Bio-mechanics in recent years have increasingly become the subject of careful study and object of the search of optimal natural balanced solutions that are at the minimum principal modifications can be applied to new technologies and innovative products
Those developers who have worked and continue to work, based on the rules and tenets of TRIZ and ARIZ, of course familiar with some of the definitions of them:
The ideal technical system - a system that does not exist and its functions are performed, ie objectives are achieved without the funds.
The ideal substance - the substance is not, as a function of it (strength, impermeability, and so on) remain. That is why in modern courts tend to use more lightweight and stronger materials, ie materials with increasingly specific strength and stiffness.
The ideal form - provides a maximum of useful effect, such as strength, with a minimum of material used.
The ideal process - getting results without the process that is instantaneous. The reduction of the manufacturing process of products - the goal of any advanced technology
Meeting the challenges of ARIZ is a sequence to identify and resolve conflicts, the causes of these conflicts and the elimination of their use of information collection. So identifies causal relationships, the essence of which - the deepening and sharpening of contradictions.
To do this, we consider three types of ARIZ contradictions:
• Surface contradiction (PP)
• In-depth contradiction (UP)
• heightened conflict (OP).
G. Altshuller called them respectively:
• Surface - Administrative controversy (AP);
• Advanced - technical contradiction (TC);
• Acute - physical contradiction (AF).

If the problem is known of the conditions which should be ready system, and the problem reduces to determining ways to get this system, you can use the "step back from the IFR." Depict the finished system, and then bring in a minimum remove the image change.

For example, if two RBIs contact details, then with minimal deviation from the IFR between the parts necessary to show the gap. There is a new problem (the micro-problem): how to fix the defect?

Resolution of such a micro-task is usually straightforward and often suggests a way to solve the general problem.
If you have to deal with the resource could be used substance (in the form in which they are), the problem most likely did not arise or would be solved automatically. Usually, we need new material, but their introduction is associated with the complication of the system, the emergence of side hazards, etc. The essence of the work with the CDF in the fourth part of ARIZ to overcome this contradiction and to introduce new material without having to enter them.

Step 4.3. is (in the simplest case) in the transition from two to inhomogeneous mono-material bi-material (the prototype of modern composite materials).

The question may arise: is the transition from a homogeneous mono- material to bi-material or poly-material ?
A similar transition from a homogeneous or bi-system to poly-system used very widely (reflected in the standard 3.1.1). But in this standard, we are talking about combining systems, as in step 4.3. consider the union of substances.
When two identical systems, there is a new system. And by combining the two "pieces" of matter is a simple increase in the number.
The substance is a multi-level hierarchical system. With sufficient accuracy for practical purposes the hierarchy levels can be represented as:
• minimally processed material (techno- material simplest example wire);
• "super-molekuls": crystal lattices, polymers, molecular association;
• complex molecules;
• the molecule;
• part of the molecules of atoms;
• atoms;
• Part of the atoms;
• elementary particles;
• the field.
The essence of Rule 8: a new substance can be a roundabout way - the destruction of the larger structures of resource materials or substances that may be introduced into the system.
So on the basis of Rule 8 modular design is one of the ways to achieve the ideal outcome in which the module is not fundamentally different from the massive mono-material
Based on the practice of building modular systems, we can conclude that the modulation is the way to a simpler problem-solving, which can gradually lead to the achievement of ideal point of the final result

The essence of Rule 9: There is another path - completion of smaller structures.

The essence of Rule 10: to destroy the profitable "whole particles (molecules, atoms), because the fractional particles (positive ions) has been partially destroyed and resist further destruction; finish building, on the contrary, favorable non-integer particle seek to recover.
Again, this underlines the benefit of completion of parts, that is, the modules

One of the mechanisms of formation of the new system by combining similar systems is that the combined system remain united the boundaries between systems. So, if mono-system - list, then polysystem - notebook, not a very thick sheet.
But the retention limits requires the introduction of the second (boundary) of the material (even if it will even void). Hence, step 4.4. - The creation of an inhomogeneous kvazipolisistemy, in which the role of the second - a boundary - the substance is emptiness.
However, emptiness - an unusual partner. Upon mixing of matter and emptiness of the border are not always visible. But there is a new quality, and this is what you need.
Assume that, in principle, constructed a schematic diagram of the separation of a certain number of mono-material (mono-structures) on a number of full-fledged stand-alone modules
How can I check or a decision on unbundling has not caused further controversy at all levels?
Necessary to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the solution.

Test Questions:
a) Does the performance of the obtained solution is the main requirement of IFR-1 ("The element itself ...")?
b) What is a physical contradiction removed (and if removed) obtained the solution?
c) Does the system obtained at least one element of a well-managed? What is it? How to manage?
d) It is suitable if the solution found for "odnotsiklovoy" model of the problem in the real world with many cycles?
Now about the biomechanics of:
Mathematicians have proposed an explanation of the modular structure of biological systems.

According to scientists, the engine of its occurrence could be the saving of resources. Work has not yet been accepted for publication, but it is available in preprint archives at Cornell University.
Researchers have tried to understand why biological systems are constructed in a modular fashion.
This property is well known to biologists and markedly different levels of the structure of organisms. Modularity have a network of interaction of genes and proteins in the cell, a network of neurons, blood system, and so on.
The benefits of modularity to accelerate the evolution of any engineer obvious - it allows you to replace some other components without changing the general scheme of the system.
However, it is not clear how that accelerates the evolution itself was the result of evolution. In other words, it is unclear what exactly was the engine of selection in favor of modular systems and engineering of "reasonableness."
The findings of scientists are based on two parallel simulations of the evolution of neural networks. Web in the experiment had to learn to recognize a specific set of signals. Those networks from the original set, which made it better than others, "bred" and gave a lot of similar but not identical to the new networks.
Conducted two parallel selection: selection criteria for the quality of signal recognition and selection, which took into account the number of wasted resources. In the second case, a network containing more bonds with the same quality of recognition, were considered ineffective and were excluded from selection.
After a certain number of cycles of evolution, scientists looked at the topology of the networks formed. It turned out that the network, where resources are not saved and the number of links is not taken into account were the "hodgepodge" of communications.
In parallel simulation, where the savings have been important to the efficiency, the network formed a distinct modules, components are tightly connected to each other and poorly - with the rest of the system.
Such a network could continue to evolve rapidly by shuffling up and ready-made components.
Studies on the topology of networks combine a variety of traditional disciplines - from mathematics and computer science to the evolution and neurobiology.
Network with a similar structure and properties (such as scale-free) can be equally easy to find in the brain, DNA, transport infrastructure, or social media.

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