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Probiotics and their innovative interpretation, Part Two, general information about the innovative component of probiotics

Andrew (Gabriel) Livshits

Conscious and / or wealthy citizens are willing to pay more for organic food, but as shown by another study conducted in the United States, organic products are not more useful than usual. Their only advantage - the absence of plaque from chemical processing.

U.S. researchers tested more than 200 different products - vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, dairy products and eggs, and found that in terms of their content of nutrients, there is no difference between organic and non-organic products.

As for the notorious chemicals, if in ordinary products were found in one third of cases, the organic - only 7% of all tested products. However, in the case of inorganic chemical products even having observed in moderation, not too high, beyond which the product begins to be dangerous to health. However, it is for the luxury of not eating chemicals, even in a minimal amount people are sometimes willing to pay for the same product twice the price.

Means significant help in maintaining health and slowing the aging process may have other factors and qualitative food

It seems to me that this is probiotics, but not just probiotics, and their innovative use of
I propose to revert to the scientific basis for evaluation of probiotics and their potential effect on the useful properties of food

Probiotics - live microorganisms which, when used in adequate amounts have a positive effect on the health of the host.

The structure of many strains of probiotics are the normal intestinal microflora, of which the most commonly used Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus W37 and W55, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus casei and paracasei , Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Saccharomyces boulardii, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus thermophilus.

Bacteria that are part of a probiotic should have a number of important properties that allow only have a positive effect on the macro-organism: to remain resistant to the action of bile acid, hydrochloric acid and pancreatic enzymes and survive the passage through the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) have the ability to to adhere to the intestinal epithelium, multiply and colonize the intestine, be of natural origin and to be safe for use in humans to possess antagonistic to pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microorganisms, clinically proven positive effects on human health remain stable during storage.

Due to the fact that in the majority of probiotics are live strains of the normal intestinal micro-flora, they share most of the properties and functions of the latter.

It is known that the micro-flora of the digestive tract is a complex ecological system that includes, along with intestinal bacteria, mucous membranes, host, food components, viruses and fungi. The bulk of the micro-flora is fixed to specific receptors on enterocytes and colonocytes mucosa (CO) tract, forming micro-colonies (mucosal micro-flora), and only a small part of it is free in the lumen of the intestine (Endoluminal micro-flora).

The composition of the intestinal bacteria of each biotope digestive tract is a constant, which is related to the ability of microorganisms to be fixed well-defined receptors of epithelial cells of the mucosa. At the same time, as part of the normal gut micro-biota revealed some individual differences, which are allocated on the basis of three variants of the normal composition of intestinal bacteria called entero-tipami.

According to the functional activity of intestinal bacteria are divided into three categories: neutral microorganisms (eg, E. coli spp.); Potentially pathogenic microorganisms (eg, Bacteroides spp.) And probiotics to promote health maintenance microorganism and including certain strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and E. coli.

In humans, the normal micro-flora performs several important functions. Thus, intestinal bacteria involved in the formation of colonization resistance, which is based on the ability to inhibit the adhesion of normal flora and pathogenic facultative bacteria to the digestive tract of CO through competition for nutrients and adhesion receptors, changes in pH, production of "bacterio-cins" or other antimicrobial peptides activity, etc.
In total, these mechanisms stabilize the mucous barrier, preventing the attachment of pathogens, their invasion and translocation of the internal environment of host.

Normal micro-flora synthesize vitamins (B1, B2, B6, K, folic, nicotinic acid, etc.) involved in the processes of digestion and, above all, in the hydrolysis of cellulose. Food components are split wide range of bacterial polisaharidaz, glycosidases, proteases and peptidases to oligomers - glucose and amino acids, which, in turn, are fermented to short chain fatty acids, organic acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and other products. Final component of hydrolysis of food chyme have diverse effects on intestinal function.

Micro-flora destroys digestive enzymes, various sterols and steroids, including cholesterol, dekonyugirovannye bile acids, androgens and estrogens. Given that the last three substances are included in the enterohepatic circulation, the destruction of their micro-flora leads to a decrease in blood androgens and estrogens, and high cholesterol levels. Bacterial production D-lactate may lead to an accumulation in the blood of D-lactic acid, which causes the development of the state, similar to alcohol intoxication.

Extremely important function of the normal intestinal micro-flora is involved in the activation of protective local and systemic immune responses, as well as the establishment of immunological tolerance host.

To restore the intestinal flora and increase the protective properties of the mucous membranes, as well as edema and prevent the development of allergic and other immunological reactions used probiotics. Probiotic bacteria exert their activity on the three levels of the body.

At the first level (microbe-microbe interactions) probiotic bacteria inhibit the livelihoods of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic strains as a result of competition for nutrients, and the ability to produce "bacterio-cins" and other substrates with antimicrobial activity.

At the second level (interaction microbial digestive tract epithelium) bacteria that make up probiotics prevent adhesion or forced out of the receptors for the adhesion of pathogenic or potentially pathogenic microorganisms, which provides colonization resistance and improves the barrier function of CO, preventing the translocation of intestinal bacteria in the internal environment of the host's .

Extremely important mechanism of action of probiotics (the third level: the interaction of microbial immune system) is involved in the activation of protective local and systemic immune responses, as well as the formation of the host's immunological tolerance.

It is known that the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract has its own lymphoid tissue and belongs to one of the independent components of the immune system known as associated with the gastrointestinal tract associated lymphoid tissue (gut associated lymphoid tissue - GALT). In the normal operation of its soluble bacterial substrates and particles as small as 150 microns, bacteria penetrate into the GALT in two ways: as a result persorbtsii and due to transport special M-cells in the gut of CO in the area of lymphoid follicles.

Later they come into contact with the receptors obrazraspoznayuschimi epithelial and immune cells, mainly due to the Toll-like receptors (TLR - Toll-like receptors), exogenous and endogenous to recognize foreign substances. As a result, through the chain of successive biological signals, a wide range of products includes mediators of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, interferon regulatory peptides regeneration and apoptosis, etc.

Bacterial antigens are presented to the beginning of T-helper cells (CD4) and macrophages, which initiate the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Last time the antigens activate immature B cells with subsequent maturation and migration of the bowel wall of the lymph, lymph nodes, spleen, which is their active proliferation, maturation and transformation into plasma cells that synthesize the secretory IgA (sIgA). In the future, mature lymphocytes and plasma cells from lymphoid tissues enter the bloodstream and settle in all the mucous membranes of the body, with up to 80% of the number of returns in the gastro-intestinal tract (homing-effect), where they provide an adequate synthesis of sIgA and increased colonization resistance mucosal host.

Similar effects have antigens normal micro-flora, including members of the probitikov.

In clinical practice, probiotics are widely used to prevent and treat a number of gastrointestinal diseases, mainly associated with the infection, as well as pathological processes in the pathogenesis of which the most important role belongs to immunological disorders. At present, developed recommendations for the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, allergies.

In recent years, a sufficient number of studies confirm the positive effect of probiotics on the receiving eradication Helicobacter pylori, in the course of ulcerative colitis, and in the prevention of colon cancer, in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Recently, it was shown that the biological properties and functions of probiotic bacteria are significantly different. Of the total mass of intestinal bacteria were isolated strains that are quite significant differences in the mechanisms of action and have a number uzkospektralnyh functions, enabling approach to the design, development and introduction of new probiotic preparations for the differentiated treatment of various diseases.

Thus, the basic property of a significant part of probiotic bacteria is the production of biological antibiotics against pathogenic and potentially pathogenic intestinal micro-flora. These strains serve on the first level - inhibit the growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic micro-flora in the gut.

A significant number of probiotic bacteria resistant to most antibiotics, and drugs to which they belong, they are used to prevent antibiotic diarrhea along with antibacterial agents. Part of the intestinal bacteria produce a substance that can improve intestinal motility and inhibit the growth of opportunistic pathogens that are present in large numbers in the intestinal micro-flora of patients with constipation.

Significant differences in the effects of probiotic strains on the various links in the local and general immune response. It turned out that some species of bacteria induce a strong immune response of the host, while others are slaboimmunogennymi or non-immunogenic. The literature suggests that the appointment of probiotics can modulate the host's immune response.

Currently, treatment of diseases, the pathogenesis of which play a pivotal role immunological disorders (allergies, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, etc.) are used probiotic strains acting on the third level, capable of modulating both local and systemic immune responses.

With the practices when choosing a probiotic must be considered as an indication for the appointment and composition of the bacteria contained in it, as well as the level at which it must operate. Consequently, if the probiotic preparation includes one bacterial strain, its ability to perform the basic functions inherent in the set of normal intestinal bacteria, as well as work on the aforementioned levels is unlikely.

Timmerman H. M. et al. proposed a classification of probiotic products, highlighting odnoshtammovye containing one strain multishtammovye, consisting of several strains of the same species of microorganisms, and multi-view, consisting of strains of different species belonging to one or, preferably, to different families of intestinal bacteria.

Multi-view probiotics have a clear advantage over odnoshtammovymi and even over multishtammovymi probiotics because they can exert their effects on three levels, in different habitats gastrointestinal tract and play a complex ecosystem in the intestinal lumen.

Thus, in clinical practice, taking into account the biological properties of probiotic bacteria and their activity at different levels of interaction with macroorganism possible to develop a differentiated approach to the selection of the optimal treatment for a particular disease, given the key link of its pathogenesis. From this perspective, the practice of multi-view and multishtammovye probiotics consisting of several strains with the unidirectional effect, are the drugs of choice. However, it should be noted that in addition to the leading effect is determined by the presence of the main indications for the drug, in different strains and species of bacteria used in a wide variety of notes and other probiotic properties.

Scientific approach to the development of new probiotic agents and their production technology is constantly improving. So, with the participation of leading experts Dutch university hospitals was developed a number of innovative probiotic called Ecologic ®, designed for science-based management of intestinal micro-flora. As a result, it has six special probiotic Ecologic ®, that are differentially used in antibiotic diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and vaginal infections. Each includes specific probiotic strains of different species of bacteria with unidirectional properties, capable of performing specific functions inherent in the normal intestinal micro-flora, and are appointed for certain indications.

Due to the presence of probiotic Ecologic ® special matrix for the bacteria within them, are characterized by high activity, good survival in the gastrointestinal tract and the ability to remain at room temperature without prior freezing for at least 2 years.

Since 2011, the Russian food market presents two new multispecies probiotic called RioFlora RioFlora Immune Balance and developed on the basis of innovative technologies. RioFlora Balance - probiotic, including eight balanced combination of probiotic microorganisms: Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus W37 and W55, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus salivarius, which have an impact on three levels of the body.

Each capsule contains at least two and a half billion (2,5 × 109 CFU / capsule) probiotic microorganisms. Admission RioFlory Balance offers a wide range of positive effects: it reduces the risk of intestinal disorders caused by taking antibiotics, normalizes the composition of intestinal micro-flora, contributing to the improvement of the functional state of the intestine with diarrhea, constipation, provides normal digestion and natural defenses against infection and the impact of unfavorable foreign environment.

Due to the fact that the bacteria belonging to the RioFlory balance, are not sensitive to most antibiotics, the tool can be used simultaneously with the use of antibiotics. Assigned to adults and children older than 3 years to 2 capsules, 2 times a day, preferably on an empty stomach (morning and before bed). Possible dissolution of the capsule in warm water, milk or yogurt (if you can not swallow the whole capsule). Course duration of 10-14 days. If necessary, the reception of the product can be repeated.

RioFlora Immuno contains a balanced combination of 9 strains of probiotic microorganisms: Bifidobacterium lactis NIZO 3680, Bifidobacterium lactis NIZO 3882, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus thermophilus. Each capsule contains at least one billion (1,0 × 109 CFU / capsule) probiotic microorganisms that strengthen immunity, reduce the risk of colds and flu, increase adaptive capacity by stress, poor nutrition.

In addition, members of the probiotic bacteria normalize complex composition of intestinal micro-flora, reduce the risk of intestinal disorders (diarrhea, constipation, bloating, etc.). During epidemics, if weakened immunity Probiotic Immune RioFlora helps to normalize the balance of intestinal flora and strengthen the immune system. Adults and children older than 3 years is assigned to 1 capsule per day, preferably on an empty stomach (morning or at night). Possible dissolution of the capsule in warm water, milk or yogurt (if you can not swallow the whole capsule). Course duration - 1-2 months. If necessary, the reception of the product can be repeated.

Thus, our knowledge of the structure and biological properties of the normal intestinal micro-biota, as well as its relationship with macroorganism constantly expanding. Accordingly, improved and probiotic means specified indications and new strategies for their appointment. Currently, probiotics in the form of dietary supplements and drugs are widely used to maintain health, prevention and treatment of many diseases. Thus perfected technology probiotics towards creating innovative tools have focused treatment mechanisms of action to scientific management intestinal micro-flora.

But the most important innovations in the use of probiotics is to pass on micro encapsulation, which allows the product to have a total uniformly distributed over the volume of the probiotic micro capsules

The total number of probiotic bacteria contained in a proposed integrated bars on Two billion units, with more full digestibility for maximum effect

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